Effect of fermentation time and drying temperature on volatile compounds in cocoa

J. Rodriguez-Campos, H. B. Escalona-Buendía, S. M. Contreras-Ramos, I. Orozco-Avila, E. Jaramillo-Flores, E. Lugo-Cervantes

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Abstract

The effects of fermentation time and drying temperature on the profile of volatile compounds were evaluated after 2, 4, 6, and 8 fermentation days followed by drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. These treatments were compared with dry cocoa controls produced in a Samoa drier and by a sun-drying process. A total of 58 volatile compounds were identified by SPME-HS/GC-MS and classified as: esters (20), alcohols (12), acids (11), aldehydes and ketones (8), pyrazines (4) and other compounds (3). Six days of fermentation were enough to produce volatile compounds with flavour notes desirable in cocoa beans, as well as to avoid the production of compounds with off-flavour notes. Drying at 70 and 80 °C after six fermentation days presented a volatile profile similar to the one obtained by sun drying. However, drying at 70 °C represents a lower cost. Given the above results, in the present study the optimal conditions for fermentation and drying of cocoa beans were 6 days of fermentation, followed by drying at 70 °C. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)277-288
Number of pages248
JournalFood Chemistry
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2012

Fingerprint

Cocoa
drying temperature
Fermentation
volatile compounds
Drying
fermentation
drying
Temperature
cocoa beans
solar drying
Solar System
Flavors
Samoa
Sun
Pyrazines
pyrazines
off flavors
ketones
Ketones
Aldehydes

Cite this

Rodriguez-Campos, J., Escalona-Buendía, H. B., Contreras-Ramos, S. M., Orozco-Avila, I., Jaramillo-Flores, E., & Lugo-Cervantes, E. (2012). Effect of fermentation time and drying temperature on volatile compounds in cocoa. Food Chemistry, 277-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.078
Rodriguez-Campos, J. ; Escalona-Buendía, H. B. ; Contreras-Ramos, S. M. ; Orozco-Avila, I. ; Jaramillo-Flores, E. ; Lugo-Cervantes, E. / Effect of fermentation time and drying temperature on volatile compounds in cocoa. In: Food Chemistry. 2012 ; pp. 277-288.
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Rodriguez-Campos, J, Escalona-Buendía, HB, Contreras-Ramos, SM, Orozco-Avila, I, Jaramillo-Flores, E & Lugo-Cervantes, E 2012, 'Effect of fermentation time and drying temperature on volatile compounds in cocoa', Food Chemistry, pp. 277-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.078

Effect of fermentation time and drying temperature on volatile compounds in cocoa. / Rodriguez-Campos, J.; Escalona-Buendía, H. B.; Contreras-Ramos, S. M.; Orozco-Avila, I.; Jaramillo-Flores, E.; Lugo-Cervantes, E.

In: Food Chemistry, 01.05.2012, p. 277-288.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Rodriguez-Campos J, Escalona-Buendía HB, Contreras-Ramos SM, Orozco-Avila I, Jaramillo-Flores E, Lugo-Cervantes E. Effect of fermentation time and drying temperature on volatile compounds in cocoa. Food Chemistry. 2012 May 1;277-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.078