Green synthetic protocol refers to the development of processes for the sustainable production of chemicals and materials. For the synthesis of various biologically active compounds, energy-efficient and environmentally benign processes are applied, such as microwave irradiation technology, ultrasound-mediated synthesis, photo-catalysis (ultraviolet, visible and infrared irradiation), molecular sieving, grinding and milling techniques, etc. Thesemethods are considered sustainable technology and become valuable green protocol to synthesize new drug molecules as theyprovidenumerous benefits over conventional synthetic methods.Based on this concept, oxadiazole derivatives are synthesized under microwave irradiation technique to reduce the formation of byproduct so that the product yield can be increased quantitatively in less reaction time. Hence, the synthesis of drug molecules under microwave irradiation follows a green chemistry approach that employs a set of principles to minimize or remove the utilization and production of hazardous toxic materials during the design, manufacture and application of chemical substances.This approach plays a major role in controlling environmental pollution by utilizing safer solvents, catalysts, suitable reaction conditions and thereby increases the atom economy and energy efficiency. Oxadiazole is a five-membered heterocyclic compound that possesses one oxygen and two nitrogen atoms in the ring system.Oxadiazole moiety is drawing considerable interest for the development of new drug candidates with potential therapeutic activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticonvulsant, anticancer, antimalarial, antitubercular, anti-asthmatic, antidepressant, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiparkinsonian, analgesic and antiinflammatory, etc. This review focuses on different synthetic approaches of oxadiazole derivatives under microwave heating method and study of their various biological activities.