The condensation of furfural with urea

A. Martínez-García, M. Ortiz, R. Martínez, P. Ortiz, E. Reguera

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19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The condensation of furfural with urea was conducted in aqueous and heterogeneous phases. In both of the synthetic procedures, the reaction was carried out using different furfural-urea molar ratios. The reaction in the aqueous phase was faster than the reaction in heterogeneous phase. The product's characterization was assessed by 1 H, 13 C and 15 N NMR, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, DTA, TG and DSC. The NMR spectra showed that the reaction product was always difurfurilidentriurea, independent of the furfural-urea molar ratio used in the syntheses. However, the results of X-ray diffraction study reveal differences in sample crystalinity. Thus, the products obtained from heterogeneous phase syntheses are more crystalline than those obtained from homogeneous reaction, and their cristalinity increases as the urea/furfural molar ratio increases. According to the thermal analysis, the product is stable until 160°C. The melting point, at 205°C, is accompanied by an endothermic decomposition. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)99-106
Number of pages8
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes

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furfural
urea
X-ray diffraction
synthesis
thermal analysis
melting point
water
degradation
sampling

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Martínez-García, A. ; Ortiz, M. ; Martínez, R. ; Ortiz, P. ; Reguera, E. / The condensation of furfural with urea. In: Industrial Crops and Products. 2004 ; pp. 99-106.
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The condensation of furfural with urea. / Martínez-García, A.; Ortiz, M.; Martínez, R.; Ortiz, P.; Reguera, E.

In: Industrial Crops and Products, 01.01.2004, p. 99-106.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The condensation of furfural with urea

AU - Martínez-García, A.

AU - Ortiz, M.

AU - Martínez, R.

AU - Ortiz, P.

AU - Reguera, E.

PY - 2004/1/1

Y1 - 2004/1/1

N2 - The condensation of furfural with urea was conducted in aqueous and heterogeneous phases. In both of the synthetic procedures, the reaction was carried out using different furfural-urea molar ratios. The reaction in the aqueous phase was faster than the reaction in heterogeneous phase. The product's characterization was assessed by 1 H, 13 C and 15 N NMR, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, DTA, TG and DSC. The NMR spectra showed that the reaction product was always difurfurilidentriurea, independent of the furfural-urea molar ratio used in the syntheses. However, the results of X-ray diffraction study reveal differences in sample crystalinity. Thus, the products obtained from heterogeneous phase syntheses are more crystalline than those obtained from homogeneous reaction, and their cristalinity increases as the urea/furfural molar ratio increases. According to the thermal analysis, the product is stable until 160°C. The melting point, at 205°C, is accompanied by an endothermic decomposition. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - The condensation of furfural with urea was conducted in aqueous and heterogeneous phases. In both of the synthetic procedures, the reaction was carried out using different furfural-urea molar ratios. The reaction in the aqueous phase was faster than the reaction in heterogeneous phase. The product's characterization was assessed by 1 H, 13 C and 15 N NMR, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, DTA, TG and DSC. The NMR spectra showed that the reaction product was always difurfurilidentriurea, independent of the furfural-urea molar ratio used in the syntheses. However, the results of X-ray diffraction study reveal differences in sample crystalinity. Thus, the products obtained from heterogeneous phase syntheses are more crystalline than those obtained from homogeneous reaction, and their cristalinity increases as the urea/furfural molar ratio increases. According to the thermal analysis, the product is stable until 160°C. The melting point, at 205°C, is accompanied by an endothermic decomposition. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

U2 - 10.1016/j.indcrop.2003.07.004

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JO - Industrial Crops and Products

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SN - 0926-6690

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