© 2017, © 2017 Taylor & Francis. The sustainability of the traditional maize agroecosystem in Ahuazotepec, Mexico, was evaluated using a cluster analysis for the typification of the producers and the Framework for Assessing the Sustainability of Natural Resource Management Systems approach for the sustainability assessment. Results revealed three groups within the agroecosystem: low-traditional, medium-traditional, and transition. Clusters differed in grain yield, income, age, education, organization, production practices, and complementary economic activities. Sustainability evaluation showed that productivity was the most influential attribute as the grain yield determined how efficiently the production resources are utilized, which in turn influences some environmental and social attributes. Information obtained allows the generation of a baseline and specific suggestions for improving sustainability of the clusters.