Sensitivity of the high altitude water Cherenkov detector to sources of multi-TeV gamma rays

A. U. Abeysekara, R. Alfaro, C. Alvarez, J. D. Álvarez, R. Arceo, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, H. A. Ayala Solares, A. S. Barber, B. M. Baughman, N. Bautista-Elivar, E. Belmont, S. Y. Benzvi, D. Berley, M. Bonilla Rosales, J. Braun, R. A. Caballero-Lopez, A. Carramiñana, M. Castillo, U. Cotti, J. Cotzomi & 81 others E. De La Fuente, C. De León, T. Deyoung, R. Diaz Hernandez, J. C. Diaz-Velez, B. L. Dingus, M. A. Duvernois, R. W. Ellsworth, A. Fernandez, D. W. Fiorino, N. Fraija, A. Galindo, J. L. Garcia-Luna, G. Garcia-Torales, F. Garfias, L. X. González, M. M. González, J. A. Goodman, V. Grabski, M. Gussert, Z. Hampel-Arias, C. M. Hui, P. Hüntemeyer, A. Imran, A. Iriarte, P. Karn, D. Kieda, G. J. Kunde, A. Lara, R. J. Lauer, W. H. Lee, D. Lennarz, H. León Vargas, E. C. Linares, J. T. Linnemann, M. Longo, R. Luna-García, A. Marinelli, O. Martinez, J. Martínez-Castro, J. A.J. Matthews, P. Miranda-Romagnoli, E. Moreno, M. Mostafá, J. Nava, L. Nellen, M. Newbold, R. Noriega-Papaqui, T. Oceguera-Becerra, B. Patricelli, R. Pelayo, E. G. Pérez-Pérez, J. Pretz, C. Rivière, J. Ryan, D. Rosa-González, H. Salazar, F. Salesa, A. Sandoval, E. Santos, M. Schneider, S. Silich, G. Sinnis, A. J. Smith, K. Sparks, R. W. Springer, I. Taboada, P. A. Toale, K. Tollefson, I. Torres, T. N. Ukwatta, L. Villaseñor, T. Weisgarber, S. Westerhoff, I. G. Wisher, J. Wood, G. B. Yodh, P. W. Younk, D. Zaborov, A. Zepeda, H. Zhou

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123 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is an array of large water Cherenkov detectors sensitive to gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays in the energy band between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The observatory will be used to measure high-energy protons and cosmic rays via detection of the energetic secondary particles reaching the ground when one of these particles interacts in the atmosphere above the detector. HAWC is under construction at a site 4100 meters above sea level on the northern slope of the volcano Sierra Negra, which is located in central Mexico at 19 N latitude. It is scheduled for completion in 2014. In this paper we estimate the sensitivity of the HAWC instrument to point-like and extended sources of gamma rays. The source fluxes are modeled using both unbroken power laws and power laws with exponential cutoffs. HAWC, in one year, is sensitive to point sources with integral power-law spectra as low as 5×10 -13 cm -2 sec -1 above 2 TeV (approximately 50 mCrab) over 5 sr of the sky. This is a conservative estimate based on simple event parameters and is expected to improve as the data analysis techniques are refined. We discuss known TeV sources and the scientific contributions that HAWC can make to our understanding of particle acceleration in these sources. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)26-32
Number of pages22
JournalAstroparticle Physics
DOIs
StatePublished - 18 Nov 2013

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high altitude
gamma rays
sensitivity
detectors
water
cosmic rays
observatories
particle acceleration
Mexico
estimates
proton energy
sea level
volcanoes
point sources
energy bands
sky
rays
cut-off
slopes
atmospheres

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Abeysekara, A. U., Alfaro, R., Alvarez, C., Álvarez, J. D., Arceo, R., Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C., ... Zhou, H. (2013). Sensitivity of the high altitude water Cherenkov detector to sources of multi-TeV gamma rays. Astroparticle Physics, 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.08.002
Abeysekara, A. U. ; Alfaro, R. ; Alvarez, C. ; Álvarez, J. D. ; Arceo, R. ; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C. ; Ayala Solares, H. A. ; Barber, A. S. ; Baughman, B. M. ; Bautista-Elivar, N. ; Belmont, E. ; Benzvi, S. Y. ; Berley, D. ; Bonilla Rosales, M. ; Braun, J. ; Caballero-Lopez, R. A. ; Carramiñana, A. ; Castillo, M. ; Cotti, U. ; Cotzomi, J. ; De La Fuente, E. ; De León, C. ; Deyoung, T. ; Diaz Hernandez, R. ; Diaz-Velez, J. C. ; Dingus, B. L. ; Duvernois, M. A. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Fernandez, A. ; Fiorino, D. W. ; Fraija, N. ; Galindo, A. ; Garcia-Luna, J. L. ; Garcia-Torales, G. ; Garfias, F. ; González, L. X. ; González, M. M. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Grabski, V. ; Gussert, M. ; Hampel-Arias, Z. ; Hui, C. M. ; Hüntemeyer, P. ; Imran, A. ; Iriarte, A. ; Karn, P. ; Kieda, D. ; Kunde, G. J. ; Lara, A. ; Lauer, R. J. ; Lee, W. H. ; Lennarz, D. ; León Vargas, H. ; Linares, E. C. ; Linnemann, J. T. ; Longo, M. ; Luna-García, R. ; Marinelli, A. ; Martinez, O. ; Martínez-Castro, J. ; Matthews, J. A.J. ; Miranda-Romagnoli, P. ; Moreno, E. ; Mostafá, M. ; Nava, J. ; Nellen, L. ; Newbold, M. ; Noriega-Papaqui, R. ; Oceguera-Becerra, T. ; Patricelli, B. ; Pelayo, R. ; Pérez-Pérez, E. G. ; Pretz, J. ; Rivière, C. ; Ryan, J. ; Rosa-González, D. ; Salazar, H. ; Salesa, F. ; Sandoval, A. ; Santos, E. ; Schneider, M. ; Silich, S. ; Sinnis, G. ; Smith, A. J. ; Sparks, K. ; Springer, R. W. ; Taboada, I. ; Toale, P. A. ; Tollefson, K. ; Torres, I. ; Ukwatta, T. N. ; Villaseñor, L. ; Weisgarber, T. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Wisher, I. G. ; Wood, J. ; Yodh, G. B. ; Younk, P. W. ; Zaborov, D. ; Zepeda, A. ; Zhou, H. / Sensitivity of the high altitude water Cherenkov detector to sources of multi-TeV gamma rays. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2013 ; pp. 26-32.
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title = "Sensitivity of the high altitude water Cherenkov detector to sources of multi-TeV gamma rays",
abstract = "The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is an array of large water Cherenkov detectors sensitive to gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays in the energy band between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The observatory will be used to measure high-energy protons and cosmic rays via detection of the energetic secondary particles reaching the ground when one of these particles interacts in the atmosphere above the detector. HAWC is under construction at a site 4100 meters above sea level on the northern slope of the volcano Sierra Negra, which is located in central Mexico at 19 N latitude. It is scheduled for completion in 2014. In this paper we estimate the sensitivity of the HAWC instrument to point-like and extended sources of gamma rays. The source fluxes are modeled using both unbroken power laws and power laws with exponential cutoffs. HAWC, in one year, is sensitive to point sources with integral power-law spectra as low as 5×10 -13 cm -2 sec -1 above 2 TeV (approximately 50 mCrab) over 5 sr of the sky. This is a conservative estimate based on simple event parameters and is expected to improve as the data analysis techniques are refined. We discuss known TeV sources and the scientific contributions that HAWC can make to our understanding of particle acceleration in these sources. {\circledC} 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
author = "Abeysekara, {A. U.} and R. Alfaro and C. Alvarez and {\'A}lvarez, {J. D.} and R. Arceo and Arteaga-Vel{\'a}zquez, {J. C.} and {Ayala Solares}, {H. A.} and Barber, {A. S.} and Baughman, {B. M.} and N. Bautista-Elivar and E. Belmont and Benzvi, {S. Y.} and D. Berley and {Bonilla Rosales}, M. and J. Braun and Caballero-Lopez, {R. A.} and A. Carrami{\~n}ana and M. Castillo and U. Cotti and J. Cotzomi and {De La Fuente}, E. and {De Le{\'o}n}, C. and T. Deyoung and {Diaz Hernandez}, R. and Diaz-Velez, {J. C.} and Dingus, {B. L.} and Duvernois, {M. A.} and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and A. Fernandez and Fiorino, {D. W.} and N. Fraija and A. Galindo and Garcia-Luna, {J. L.} and G. Garcia-Torales and F. Garfias and Gonz{\'a}lez, {L. X.} and Gonz{\'a}lez, {M. M.} and Goodman, {J. A.} and V. Grabski and M. Gussert and Z. Hampel-Arias and Hui, {C. M.} and P. H{\"u}ntemeyer and A. Imran and A. Iriarte and P. Karn and D. Kieda and Kunde, {G. J.} and A. Lara and Lauer, {R. J.} and Lee, {W. H.} and D. Lennarz and {Le{\'o}n Vargas}, H. and Linares, {E. C.} and Linnemann, {J. T.} and M. Longo and R. Luna-Garc{\'i}a and A. Marinelli and O. Martinez and J. Mart{\'i}nez-Castro and Matthews, {J. A.J.} and P. Miranda-Romagnoli and E. Moreno and M. Mostaf{\'a} and J. Nava and L. Nellen and M. Newbold and R. Noriega-Papaqui and T. Oceguera-Becerra and B. Patricelli and R. Pelayo and P{\'e}rez-P{\'e}rez, {E. G.} and J. Pretz and C. Rivi{\`e}re and J. Ryan and D. Rosa-Gonz{\'a}lez and H. Salazar and F. Salesa and A. Sandoval and E. Santos and M. Schneider and S. Silich and G. Sinnis and Smith, {A. J.} and K. Sparks and Springer, {R. W.} and I. Taboada and Toale, {P. A.} and K. Tollefson and I. Torres and Ukwatta, {T. N.} and L. Villase{\~n}or and T. Weisgarber and S. Westerhoff and Wisher, {I. G.} and J. Wood and Yodh, {G. B.} and Younk, {P. W.} and D. Zaborov and A. Zepeda and H. Zhou",
year = "2013",
month = "11",
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doi = "10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.08.002",
language = "American English",
pages = "26--32",
journal = "Astroparticle Physics",
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Abeysekara, AU, Alfaro, R, Alvarez, C, Álvarez, JD, Arceo, R, Arteaga-Velázquez, JC, Ayala Solares, HA, Barber, AS, Baughman, BM, Bautista-Elivar, N, Belmont, E, Benzvi, SY, Berley, D, Bonilla Rosales, M, Braun, J, Caballero-Lopez, RA, Carramiñana, A, Castillo, M, Cotti, U, Cotzomi, J, De La Fuente, E, De León, C, Deyoung, T, Diaz Hernandez, R, Diaz-Velez, JC, Dingus, BL, Duvernois, MA, Ellsworth, RW, Fernandez, A, Fiorino, DW, Fraija, N, Galindo, A, Garcia-Luna, JL, Garcia-Torales, G, Garfias, F, González, LX, González, MM, Goodman, JA, Grabski, V, Gussert, M, Hampel-Arias, Z, Hui, CM, Hüntemeyer, P, Imran, A, Iriarte, A, Karn, P, Kieda, D, Kunde, GJ, Lara, A, Lauer, RJ, Lee, WH, Lennarz, D, León Vargas, H, Linares, EC, Linnemann, JT, Longo, M, Luna-García, R, Marinelli, A, Martinez, O, Martínez-Castro, J, Matthews, JAJ, Miranda-Romagnoli, P, Moreno, E, Mostafá, M, Nava, J, Nellen, L, Newbold, M, Noriega-Papaqui, R, Oceguera-Becerra, T, Patricelli, B, Pelayo, R, Pérez-Pérez, EG, Pretz, J, Rivière, C, Ryan, J, Rosa-González, D, Salazar, H, Salesa, F, Sandoval, A, Santos, E, Schneider, M, Silich, S, Sinnis, G, Smith, AJ, Sparks, K, Springer, RW, Taboada, I, Toale, PA, Tollefson, K, Torres, I, Ukwatta, TN, Villaseñor, L, Weisgarber, T, Westerhoff, S, Wisher, IG, Wood, J, Yodh, GB, Younk, PW, Zaborov, D, Zepeda, A & Zhou, H 2013, 'Sensitivity of the high altitude water Cherenkov detector to sources of multi-TeV gamma rays', Astroparticle Physics, pp. 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.08.002

Sensitivity of the high altitude water Cherenkov detector to sources of multi-TeV gamma rays. / Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Belmont, E.; Benzvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Lopez, R. A.; Carramiñana, A.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; De La Fuente, E.; De León, C.; Deyoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fernandez, A.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garcia-Luna, J. L.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Garfias, F.; González, L. X.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Grabski, V.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linares, E. C.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo, M.; Luna-García, R.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Matthews, J. A.J.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nava, J.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Rivière, C.; Ryan, J.; Rosa-González, D.; Salazar, H.; Salesa, F.; Sandoval, A.; Santos, E.; Schneider, M.; Silich, S.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Sparks, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.

In: Astroparticle Physics, 18.11.2013, p. 26-32.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sensitivity of the high altitude water Cherenkov detector to sources of multi-TeV gamma rays

AU - Abeysekara, A. U.

AU - Alfaro, R.

AU - Alvarez, C.

AU - Álvarez, J. D.

AU - Arceo, R.

AU - Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.

AU - Ayala Solares, H. A.

AU - Barber, A. S.

AU - Baughman, B. M.

AU - Bautista-Elivar, N.

AU - Belmont, E.

AU - Benzvi, S. Y.

AU - Berley, D.

AU - Bonilla Rosales, M.

AU - Braun, J.

AU - Caballero-Lopez, R. A.

AU - Carramiñana, A.

AU - Castillo, M.

AU - Cotti, U.

AU - Cotzomi, J.

AU - De La Fuente, E.

AU - De León, C.

AU - Deyoung, T.

AU - Diaz Hernandez, R.

AU - Diaz-Velez, J. C.

AU - Dingus, B. L.

AU - Duvernois, M. A.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Fernandez, A.

AU - Fiorino, D. W.

AU - Fraija, N.

AU - Galindo, A.

AU - Garcia-Luna, J. L.

AU - Garcia-Torales, G.

AU - Garfias, F.

AU - González, L. X.

AU - González, M. M.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Grabski, V.

AU - Gussert, M.

AU - Hampel-Arias, Z.

AU - Hui, C. M.

AU - Hüntemeyer, P.

AU - Imran, A.

AU - Iriarte, A.

AU - Karn, P.

AU - Kieda, D.

AU - Kunde, G. J.

AU - Lara, A.

AU - Lauer, R. J.

AU - Lee, W. H.

AU - Lennarz, D.

AU - León Vargas, H.

AU - Linares, E. C.

AU - Linnemann, J. T.

AU - Longo, M.

AU - Luna-García, R.

AU - Marinelli, A.

AU - Martinez, O.

AU - Martínez-Castro, J.

AU - Matthews, J. A.J.

AU - Miranda-Romagnoli, P.

AU - Moreno, E.

AU - Mostafá, M.

AU - Nava, J.

AU - Nellen, L.

AU - Newbold, M.

AU - Noriega-Papaqui, R.

AU - Oceguera-Becerra, T.

AU - Patricelli, B.

AU - Pelayo, R.

AU - Pérez-Pérez, E. G.

AU - Pretz, J.

AU - Rivière, C.

AU - Ryan, J.

AU - Rosa-González, D.

AU - Salazar, H.

AU - Salesa, F.

AU - Sandoval, A.

AU - Santos, E.

AU - Schneider, M.

AU - Silich, S.

AU - Sinnis, G.

AU - Smith, A. J.

AU - Sparks, K.

AU - Springer, R. W.

AU - Taboada, I.

AU - Toale, P. A.

AU - Tollefson, K.

AU - Torres, I.

AU - Ukwatta, T. N.

AU - Villaseñor, L.

AU - Weisgarber, T.

AU - Westerhoff, S.

AU - Wisher, I. G.

AU - Wood, J.

AU - Yodh, G. B.

AU - Younk, P. W.

AU - Zaborov, D.

AU - Zepeda, A.

AU - Zhou, H.

PY - 2013/11/18

Y1 - 2013/11/18

N2 - The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is an array of large water Cherenkov detectors sensitive to gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays in the energy band between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The observatory will be used to measure high-energy protons and cosmic rays via detection of the energetic secondary particles reaching the ground when one of these particles interacts in the atmosphere above the detector. HAWC is under construction at a site 4100 meters above sea level on the northern slope of the volcano Sierra Negra, which is located in central Mexico at 19 N latitude. It is scheduled for completion in 2014. In this paper we estimate the sensitivity of the HAWC instrument to point-like and extended sources of gamma rays. The source fluxes are modeled using both unbroken power laws and power laws with exponential cutoffs. HAWC, in one year, is sensitive to point sources with integral power-law spectra as low as 5×10 -13 cm -2 sec -1 above 2 TeV (approximately 50 mCrab) over 5 sr of the sky. This is a conservative estimate based on simple event parameters and is expected to improve as the data analysis techniques are refined. We discuss known TeV sources and the scientific contributions that HAWC can make to our understanding of particle acceleration in these sources. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is an array of large water Cherenkov detectors sensitive to gamma rays and hadronic cosmic rays in the energy band between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The observatory will be used to measure high-energy protons and cosmic rays via detection of the energetic secondary particles reaching the ground when one of these particles interacts in the atmosphere above the detector. HAWC is under construction at a site 4100 meters above sea level on the northern slope of the volcano Sierra Negra, which is located in central Mexico at 19 N latitude. It is scheduled for completion in 2014. In this paper we estimate the sensitivity of the HAWC instrument to point-like and extended sources of gamma rays. The source fluxes are modeled using both unbroken power laws and power laws with exponential cutoffs. HAWC, in one year, is sensitive to point sources with integral power-law spectra as low as 5×10 -13 cm -2 sec -1 above 2 TeV (approximately 50 mCrab) over 5 sr of the sky. This is a conservative estimate based on simple event parameters and is expected to improve as the data analysis techniques are refined. We discuss known TeV sources and the scientific contributions that HAWC can make to our understanding of particle acceleration in these sources. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84887431030&origin=inward

U2 - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.08.002

DO - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.08.002

M3 - Article

SP - 26

EP - 32

JO - Astroparticle Physics

JF - Astroparticle Physics

SN - 0927-6505

ER -

Abeysekara AU, Alfaro R, Alvarez C, Álvarez JD, Arceo R, Arteaga-Velázquez JC et al. Sensitivity of the high altitude water Cherenkov detector to sources of multi-TeV gamma rays. Astroparticle Physics. 2013 Nov 18;26-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.08.002