Maternal Thyroid Hormone Deficiency during Gestation and Lactation Alters Metabolic and Thyroid Programming of the Offspring in the Adult Stage

Jorge Tapia-Martínez, Alejandra Paola Torres-Manzo, Margarita Franco-Colín, Marisol Pineda-Reynoso, Edgar Cano-Europa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Environmental stimuli during critical developmental stages establish long-term physiological and structural patterns that program health during adult life. Little is known about how alterations in hormonal supply might have consequences in metabolic and thyroid programming. This work aims to prove that alterations in the supply of thyroid hormones during gestation and lactation have long-term consequences in the metabolic and thyroid programming of the offspring. Female Wistar rats were divided into euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hypothyroid with 20 μg/day of s.c. thyroxine (T 4), replacement wet nurses. Rats were mating, and after birth, pups were grouped according to their wet nurses group. Milk quality of wet nurses was assessed on days 7, 14, and 21. Body mass gain and energy intake of the offspring were monitored for 28 weeks after weaning. At sacrifice, we extracted and weighed their thyroid gland and adipose reserves, and collected blood to measure its metabolic and thyroid profiles. Hypothyroid wet nurses presented a persistent low quality of milk, while both male and female hypothyroid offspring presented lower body mass gain, higher blood glucose, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia, as well as lower total adipose reserves, but higher visceral reserve, diminished T 3 and T 4 concentrations, and lower weight of thyroid gland. Thyroxine replacement prevented all changes in both wet nurses and pups. We conclude that maternal thyroid hormone deficiency during congenital and lactation stages alters the metabolic and thyroid programming of the offspring, while the reestablishment of maternal thyroid status during critical periods of development can prevent these alterations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-388
Number of pages8
JournalHormone and Metabolic Research
Volume51
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Adult Children
Thyroxine
Thyroid Hormones
Lactation
Rats
Thyroid Gland
Mothers
Pregnancy
Nurses
Blood Glucose
Blood
Health
Milk
Metabolome
Hyperinsulinism
Dyslipidemias
Weaning
Energy Intake
Wistar Rats
Parturition

Keywords

  • congenital hypothyroidism
  • hormonal replacement
  • metabolic programming
  • thyroid hormone
  • thyroid programming

Cite this

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title = "Maternal Thyroid Hormone Deficiency during Gestation and Lactation Alters Metabolic and Thyroid Programming of the Offspring in the Adult Stage",
abstract = "Environmental stimuli during critical developmental stages establish long-term physiological and structural patterns that program health during adult life. Little is known about how alterations in hormonal supply might have consequences in metabolic and thyroid programming. This work aims to prove that alterations in the supply of thyroid hormones during gestation and lactation have long-term consequences in the metabolic and thyroid programming of the offspring. Female Wistar rats were divided into euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hypothyroid with 20 μg/day of s.c. thyroxine (T 4), replacement wet nurses. Rats were mating, and after birth, pups were grouped according to their wet nurses group. Milk quality of wet nurses was assessed on days 7, 14, and 21. Body mass gain and energy intake of the offspring were monitored for 28 weeks after weaning. At sacrifice, we extracted and weighed their thyroid gland and adipose reserves, and collected blood to measure its metabolic and thyroid profiles. Hypothyroid wet nurses presented a persistent low quality of milk, while both male and female hypothyroid offspring presented lower body mass gain, higher blood glucose, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia, as well as lower total adipose reserves, but higher visceral reserve, diminished T 3 and T 4 concentrations, and lower weight of thyroid gland. Thyroxine replacement prevented all changes in both wet nurses and pups. We conclude that maternal thyroid hormone deficiency during congenital and lactation stages alters the metabolic and thyroid programming of the offspring, while the reestablishment of maternal thyroid status during critical periods of development can prevent these alterations.",
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Maternal Thyroid Hormone Deficiency during Gestation and Lactation Alters Metabolic and Thyroid Programming of the Offspring in the Adult Stage. / Tapia-Martínez, Jorge; Torres-Manzo, Alejandra Paola; Franco-Colín, Margarita; Pineda-Reynoso, Marisol; Cano-Europa, Edgar.

In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Vol. 51, No. 6, 01.01.2019, p. 381-388.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Maternal Thyroid Hormone Deficiency during Gestation and Lactation Alters Metabolic and Thyroid Programming of the Offspring in the Adult Stage

AU - Tapia-Martínez, Jorge

AU - Torres-Manzo, Alejandra Paola

AU - Franco-Colín, Margarita

AU - Pineda-Reynoso, Marisol

AU - Cano-Europa, Edgar

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