The alarming worldwide emergence of the chikungunya virus began in the last decade. Since the first autochthonous transmission in Mexico in November of 2014, the virus has spread throughout the country, resulted in multiple outbreaks. This virus produces an acute and self-limiting disease characterized by fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, exanthema, and general malaise. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes. The fact that the clinical presentation is similar to that produced by other arboviruses complicates its clinical diagnosis. The chronic stage of the disease can cause severe consequences lasting months or years, from local arthralgia to rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we emphasize the public health threat posed by this highly disabling emerging disease, the clinical outcomes, and its possible physiopathological process. We outline the diagnosis and the impact that this virus has had in Mexico since its introduction.