An alternative to chemical fungicides in post-harvest diseases are the use of biocontrol agents and their extracellular products against phytopathogens. Two relevant agents in post-harvest infections are Thielaviopsis paradoxa and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causing large economic losses in cacao, pineapple, and avocado during storage. In this work, we evaluated the effect of Wickerhamomyces anomalus, an effective biocontrol agent, against these filamentous fungi, focusing on the production of extracellular enzymes and their effect on fungal growth and germination. Moreover, we evaluated the use of inactivated fungal biomass as an inducer in complete (Potato Dextrose Agar and Yeast Peptone Dextrose) and minimal culture media. The antagonistic effect of W anomalus on the growth of both phytopathogens was also studied. The extracellular enzymes in YPD cultures, using T. paradoxa inactivated biomass as the best inducer, were capable of inhibiting the germination of both phytopathogens. In minimal media, only the production of a 30 kDa glucanase with activity against laminarin was observed. The enzyme was effective against the spore germination of T. paradoxa. In post-harvest crop protection tests, growth inhibition of T. paradoxa was observed using the cell-free enzyme extract, which is a promising system to protect cocoa fruits from T. paradoxa during post-harvest.
- Colletotricum gloeoesporioides
- Thielaviopsis paradoxa
- Wickerhamomyces anomalus