A Physical Model to Study the Effects of Nozzle Design on Dispersed Two-Phase Flows in a Slab Mold Casting Ultra-Low-Carbon Steels

María M. Salazar-Campoy, R. D. Morales, A. Nájera-Bastida, Ismael Calderón-Ramos, Valentín Cedillo-Hernández, J. C. Delgado-Pureco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

© 2018 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International The effects of nozzle design on dispersed, two-phase flows of the steel-argon system in a slab mold are studied using a water-air model with particle image velocimetry and ultrasound probe velocimetry techniques. Three nozzle designs were tested with the same bore size and different port geometries, including square (S), special bottom design with square ports (U), and circular (C). The meniscus velocities of the liquid increase two- or threefold in two-phase flows regarding one-phase flows using low flow rates of the gas phase. This effect is due to the dragging effects on bubbles by the liquid jets forming two-way coupled flows. Liquid velocities (primary phase) along the narrow face of the mold also are higher for two-phase flows. Flows using nozzle U are less dependent on the effects of the secondary phase (air). The smallest bubble sizes are obtained using nozzle U, which confirms that bubble breakup is dependent on the strain rates of the fluid and dissipation of kinetic energy in the nozzle bottom and port edges. Through dimensionless analysis, it was found that the bubble sizes are inversely proportional to the dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy, ε0.4. A simple expression involving ε, surface tension, and density of metal is derived to scale up bubble sizes in water to bubble sizes in steel with different degrees of deoxidation. The validity of water-air models to study steel-argon flows is discussed. Prior works related with experiments to model argon bubbling in steel slab molds under nonwetting conditions are critically reviewed.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
DOIs
StatePublished - 2 Feb 2018

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nozzle design
Nozzle design
low carbon steels
Steel
Low carbon steel
two phase flow
Two phase flow
Argon
Casting
slabs
bubbles
Nozzles
Kinetic energy
steels
Velocity measurement
Water
Liquids
Air
Metals
argon

Cite this

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title = "A Physical Model to Study the Effects of Nozzle Design on Dispersed Two-Phase Flows in a Slab Mold Casting Ultra-Low-Carbon Steels",
abstract = "{\circledC} 2018 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International The effects of nozzle design on dispersed, two-phase flows of the steel-argon system in a slab mold are studied using a water-air model with particle image velocimetry and ultrasound probe velocimetry techniques. Three nozzle designs were tested with the same bore size and different port geometries, including square (S), special bottom design with square ports (U), and circular (C). The meniscus velocities of the liquid increase two- or threefold in two-phase flows regarding one-phase flows using low flow rates of the gas phase. This effect is due to the dragging effects on bubbles by the liquid jets forming two-way coupled flows. Liquid velocities (primary phase) along the narrow face of the mold also are higher for two-phase flows. Flows using nozzle U are less dependent on the effects of the secondary phase (air). The smallest bubble sizes are obtained using nozzle U, which confirms that bubble breakup is dependent on the strain rates of the fluid and dissipation of kinetic energy in the nozzle bottom and port edges. Through dimensionless analysis, it was found that the bubble sizes are inversely proportional to the dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy, ε0.4. A simple expression involving ε, surface tension, and density of metal is derived to scale up bubble sizes in water to bubble sizes in steel with different degrees of deoxidation. The validity of water-air models to study steel-argon flows is discussed. Prior works related with experiments to model argon bubbling in steel slab molds under nonwetting conditions are critically reviewed.",
author = "Salazar-Campoy, {Mar{\'i}a M.} and Morales, {R. D.} and A. N{\'a}jera-Bastida and Ismael Calder{\'o}n-Ramos and Valent{\'i}n Cedillo-Hern{\'a}ndez and Delgado-Pureco, {J. C.}",
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journal = "Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science",
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A Physical Model to Study the Effects of Nozzle Design on Dispersed Two-Phase Flows in a Slab Mold Casting Ultra-Low-Carbon Steels. / Salazar-Campoy, María M.; Morales, R. D.; Nájera-Bastida, A.; Calderón-Ramos, Ismael; Cedillo-Hernández, Valentín; Delgado-Pureco, J. C.

In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, 02.02.2018, p. 1-19.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - A Physical Model to Study the Effects of Nozzle Design on Dispersed Two-Phase Flows in a Slab Mold Casting Ultra-Low-Carbon Steels

AU - Salazar-Campoy, María M.

AU - Morales, R. D.

AU - Nájera-Bastida, A.

AU - Calderón-Ramos, Ismael

AU - Cedillo-Hernández, Valentín

AU - Delgado-Pureco, J. C.

PY - 2018/2/2

Y1 - 2018/2/2

N2 - © 2018 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International The effects of nozzle design on dispersed, two-phase flows of the steel-argon system in a slab mold are studied using a water-air model with particle image velocimetry and ultrasound probe velocimetry techniques. Three nozzle designs were tested with the same bore size and different port geometries, including square (S), special bottom design with square ports (U), and circular (C). The meniscus velocities of the liquid increase two- or threefold in two-phase flows regarding one-phase flows using low flow rates of the gas phase. This effect is due to the dragging effects on bubbles by the liquid jets forming two-way coupled flows. Liquid velocities (primary phase) along the narrow face of the mold also are higher for two-phase flows. Flows using nozzle U are less dependent on the effects of the secondary phase (air). The smallest bubble sizes are obtained using nozzle U, which confirms that bubble breakup is dependent on the strain rates of the fluid and dissipation of kinetic energy in the nozzle bottom and port edges. Through dimensionless analysis, it was found that the bubble sizes are inversely proportional to the dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy, ε0.4. A simple expression involving ε, surface tension, and density of metal is derived to scale up bubble sizes in water to bubble sizes in steel with different degrees of deoxidation. The validity of water-air models to study steel-argon flows is discussed. Prior works related with experiments to model argon bubbling in steel slab molds under nonwetting conditions are critically reviewed.

AB - © 2018 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International The effects of nozzle design on dispersed, two-phase flows of the steel-argon system in a slab mold are studied using a water-air model with particle image velocimetry and ultrasound probe velocimetry techniques. Three nozzle designs were tested with the same bore size and different port geometries, including square (S), special bottom design with square ports (U), and circular (C). The meniscus velocities of the liquid increase two- or threefold in two-phase flows regarding one-phase flows using low flow rates of the gas phase. This effect is due to the dragging effects on bubbles by the liquid jets forming two-way coupled flows. Liquid velocities (primary phase) along the narrow face of the mold also are higher for two-phase flows. Flows using nozzle U are less dependent on the effects of the secondary phase (air). The smallest bubble sizes are obtained using nozzle U, which confirms that bubble breakup is dependent on the strain rates of the fluid and dissipation of kinetic energy in the nozzle bottom and port edges. Through dimensionless analysis, it was found that the bubble sizes are inversely proportional to the dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy, ε0.4. A simple expression involving ε, surface tension, and density of metal is derived to scale up bubble sizes in water to bubble sizes in steel with different degrees of deoxidation. The validity of water-air models to study steel-argon flows is discussed. Prior works related with experiments to model argon bubbling in steel slab molds under nonwetting conditions are critically reviewed.

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JO - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

JF - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

SN - 1073-5615

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