Posterior Subdiaphragmatic Vagotomy Downmodulates the IgA Levels in the Small Intestine of BALB/c Mice
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© 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel. Copyright: All rights reserved. Objective: The posterior vagus nerve trunk innervates the entire small intestine, and elucidating its modulatory role in the IgA response was the aim of this study. Methods: Two groups of six male BALB/c mice underwent sham or posterior subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and were euthanized on the 14th postoperative day; then, the small intestines were dissected. The intestinal fluid was harvested for antibody analysis by ELISA, and cell suspensions from Peyer's patches and lamina propria were prepared for cytofluorometric analysis of plasma cells and T lymphocytes. The CD4+ T cells were labeled for the intracellular IgA-producing interleukins (ILs)-4,-5,-6, and-10; transforming growth factor (TGF)-β; and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and IL-12. In the intestinal tissue samples, myeloperoxidase (MPO) visualization and the enzymatic activity were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively. The data were analyzed by Student's t test, and the differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. Results: In the vagotomy group, the IgA levels and the CD4+ T cells labeled with mediators that promote IgA secretion, including IL-4 (only at lamina propria), TNF-α, and IFN-γ, were decreased, whereas the lamina propria IgA+ plasma cells and MPO presence/activity were increased; changes in the IgM levels, IgM+ plasma cells, and CD4+ T cells labeled with TGF-β, which have a role in class switch recombination, were not observed. Conclusion: The downmodulating impact of vagotomy on IgA levels may result from defective IgA secretion without affecting class switch recombination, whereas vagotomy evoked a proinflammatory response regarding MPO. These findings may reflect the role of the vagus nerve on the control of the IgA response in the small intestine.