Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol on ZrO<inf>2</inf>–TiO<inf>2</inf>: influence of crystal size, surface area, and energetic states

Diana Guerrero-Araque, David Ramírez-Ortega, Próspero Acevedo-Peña, Rodolfo Zanella, Ricardo Gómez

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Resumen

© 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. ZrO2–TiO2 heterostructure with 5 mol% of ZrO2 was synthesized by the sol–gel method and calcined at different temperatures (300–600 °C). The photocatalysts were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, physisorption of N2, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was tested for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol under ultraviolet irradiation, being the materials exhibiting the best performance those calcined at 400 °C and 500 °C with 99% and 98% of degradation, respectively, after 150 min under irradiation. This behavior was related to a smaller crystallite size, higher surface area, and significant hydroxyl radicals produced. The (photo)electrochemical study showed that temperatures of 400 °C and 500 °C also generated an optimum amount of energetic states that act as electron traps and decrease the electron–hole pair recombination, favoring the oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol. However, at 300 °C and 600 °C, these energetic states act as an energy barrier that reduces the effective charge transfer and therefore decreases the photocatalytic activity of the materials.
Idioma originalInglés estadounidense
Páginas (desde-hasta)3332-3341
Número de páginas10
PublicaciónJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 1 feb 2020

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