Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary science that is focused on characterization, production, and manipulation of materials at nanoscale, while nanoagriculture does to reference to three main fields: water, energy, and agro-food production, where the nanotechnology can be applied. The discovery of carbon nanotubes unleashed the revolution in the use and handling of nanomaterials. The most used nanomaterials in nanoagriculture are nanomembranes, nanoporous polymers, nanoporous zeolites, carbon nanotubes for nanosensors, and catalytic nanoparticles for the removal of pollutants of environment. Recently, an attractive application of nanotechnology is energy production based on the use of biological nanomaterials supported in carbon nanotubes and graphene. The understanding of nanotechnology is important to contribute significantly to improvement of growing crops, water quality, and sustainable energy.