In the search for an alternative treatment to reduce antimicrobial resistance, bacteriocins shine a light on reducing this problem in public and animal health. Bacteriocins are peptides synthesized by bacteria that can inhibit the growth of other bacteria and fungi, parasites, and viruses. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of bacteria that produce bacteriocins; their mechanism of action can replace antibiotics and prevent bacterial resistance. In veterinary medicine, LAB and bacteriocins have been used as antimicrobials and probiotics. However, another critical role of bacteriocins is their immunomodulatory effect. This review shows the advances in applying bacteriocins in animal production and veterinary medicine, highlighting their biological roles.