Combining traditional medicine with nanotechnology therefore opens the door to innovative strategies for treating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and also contributes to the fight against the rise of antimicrobial resistance. Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze is a medicinal plant used by indigenous peoples in northeastern Argentina to treat SSTIs. Spherical and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of 14 ± 2 nm were synthesized from the aqueous extract of A. australe and silver nitrate. The antimicrobial activity against main species causing SSTIs and cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of AgNP solution and its synthesis components were evaluated. Compared to its synthesis components, AgNP solution showed greater antimicrobial activity and lower cytotoxicity. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was due to the silver and not to the metabolites of the aqueous extract present on the surface of the nanoparticles. The plant extract played an important role in the formation of stable AgNPs and acted as a modulator of cytotoxic and immune responses.