Currently one of the problems facing global development is the availability of water. Although water is abundant the planet only a small portion is for human use and consumption. The problem is exacerbated due to different factors, mainly: meteorological phenomena, the presence of contaminants in the water and the increase in the number of inhabitants. Potential effects of pollutants not only can affect freshwater biota but also can be implicated in cancer development and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The study was conducted in the Madín Dam, a reservoir of economic importance for the geographical area in which it is located, as well as catering to the population of nearby areas, and is a place where recreational activities such as fishing and kayaking are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the toxic effects that the pollutants present in the water of the Madín Dam can generate on a human cell line (SH SY5Y) evaluating the cell viability and the participation of the Aril Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Pregnane X receptor (PXR) through of the expression of the CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 (canonical genes). In one of the five sites analyzed, cell viability was up to 50%, in this site a decrease in the normal expression of CYP1A1 was observed (p < 0.05) and the CYP3A4 gene was not expressed in the cells SH SY5Y. These results show that the SH SY5Y cell line is a good biomarker for assessing the human toxicity of environmental pollutants and relating it to neurodegenerative diseases.