© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are considered efficient tools for modeling complex, non-linear processes with uncertain dynamic models. ANNs were originally applied as effective predictors of diverse processes with static dependence on the input-output information. However, when the ANN must be applied to characterize an approximate model of time-dependent input-output relationships, then it is necessary to introduce the time effect as part of the ANN, yielding to the construction of dynamic ANN or DNN. This review establishes the variants of recurrent and differential forms of DNN, their mathematically formulation as well as the methods to adjust the network weights. The characteristics of DNNs motivate their use to represent the dynamics of decontamination processes. This review details recent findings on the DNN application for the modeling and control of treatment systems based on either biological and chemical processes. The modeling application of DNN for some common methods used in the treatment of wastewater, contaminated soil and atmosphere is described. The major benefits of using the approximate DNN-based model instead of designing the complex mathematical description for each treatment are analyzed in the context of enhancing the efficiency of the decontamination treatment. This review also highlights the remarkable efficiency of DNNs as a keystone tool for modeling and control sequence of treatments. The last section in the review introduces several open researching areas for the application of DNN for decontamination systems based on biochemical and chemical treatments.