Copyright © 2020 by ASTM International. This study evaluated the wear (under dry conditions) and scratch resistance of a cobalt boride layer exposed to a diffusion annealing process (DAP). Firstly, the powder-pack boriding process (PPBP) was conducted at 1,223 K with 4 h of exposure to develop a CoB-Co2B layer on the surface of the ASTM F1537 alloy, followed by a DAP at 1,273 K with 2 h of exposure in an argon atmosphere. Before the wear and scratch tests, the resulting cobalt boride layers, obtained by the PPBP and PPBP + DAP, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and depth-sensing Vickers microindentation techniques. The wear sliding tests, on the PPBP and PPBP + DAP, were performed using a ball-on-flat configuration comprising an alumina ball as a counterpart using a constant normal force and different relative wear distances (50, 100, and 150 m). In addition, the scratch tests were carried out over the surface of the PPBP and PPBP + DAP using a Rockwell-C diamond indenter with a continuously increasing normal force from 5 to 150 N. Finally, and according to the entire set of experimental conditions, the results showed that the presence of the CoBCo2B layer obtained by the PPBP on the surface of the ASTM F1537 alloy increased the wear resistance compared with the values estimated on the PPBP + DAP. In contrast, the effect of the DAP on the cobalt boride layer enhanced the practical adhesion resistance of the layersubstrate system based on the critical loads obtained during the scratch tests.