Ultrasound-assisted polymerization of methyl methacrylate using the reactive surfactant Hitenol BC10 in a semicontinuous heterophase process

Citlalli Y. Vargas-Salazar, Víctor M. Ovando-Medina, Raquel Ledezma-Rodríguez, René D. Peralta, Hugo Martínez-Gutiérrez

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Abstract

© 2014, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute. Semicontinuous heterophase polymerization was used to polymerize methyl methacrylate (MMA) with the reactive surfactant Hitenol BC10 (polyoxyethylene(10)alkylphenyl ether ammonium sulfate, HBC10) in the presence of ultrasound at 50 °C. The effects of HBC10 concentrations and the monomer addition rate (Ra) on kinetics, colloidal behavior, and molar masses were studied. Latexes with polymer content between 20 and 24 % were obtained. Particle size distributions (PSD) of latexes without HBC10 were bimodal, whereas those obtained in the presence of HBC10 were mono-modal in all cases. The average particle diameters (Dp) were in the range of 39–63 nm decreasing with the HBC10 concentration and increasing with Ra. Polymerization rates (Rp) were decreased, by increasing the HBC10 concentration, which was ascribed to chain transfer events to HBC10. It was also observed that Rp increased with Ra; however, monomer-starved conditions were favored at lower Ra values. Very high-average molecular weights were observed (1.63 × 106 ≤ Mw ≤ 2.34 × 106 g/mol) which decreased when HBC10 concentration increased, and increased with Ra. The corresponding polydispersity indexes (Mw/Mn) were in the range of 1.55–2.30, showing relatively wide molar masses distributions. It was observed from differential scanning calorimetry that polymers with HBC10 presented two Tg (123 and 178 °C) which was ascribed to HBC10 incorporated to PMMA chain, corroborated by 1H NMR.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)41-50
Number of pages35
JournalIranian Polymer Journal (English Edition)
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014

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Methacrylates
Surface-Active Agents
Polymers
Surface active agents
Molar mass
Ultrasonics
Polymerization
Latex
Latexes
Monomers
Ammonium Sulfate
Polydispersity
Polymethyl Methacrylate
Petrochemicals
Particle size analysis
Ether
Polyethylene glycols
Differential scanning calorimetry
Ethers
Molecular weight

Cite this

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title = "Ultrasound-assisted polymerization of methyl methacrylate using the reactive surfactant Hitenol BC10 in a semicontinuous heterophase process",
abstract = "{\circledC} 2014, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute. Semicontinuous heterophase polymerization was used to polymerize methyl methacrylate (MMA) with the reactive surfactant Hitenol BC10 (polyoxyethylene(10)alkylphenyl ether ammonium sulfate, HBC10) in the presence of ultrasound at 50 °C. The effects of HBC10 concentrations and the monomer addition rate (Ra) on kinetics, colloidal behavior, and molar masses were studied. Latexes with polymer content between 20 and 24 {\%} were obtained. Particle size distributions (PSD) of latexes without HBC10 were bimodal, whereas those obtained in the presence of HBC10 were mono-modal in all cases. The average particle diameters (Dp) were in the range of 39–63 nm decreasing with the HBC10 concentration and increasing with Ra. Polymerization rates (Rp) were decreased, by increasing the HBC10 concentration, which was ascribed to chain transfer events to HBC10. It was also observed that Rp increased with Ra; however, monomer-starved conditions were favored at lower Ra values. Very high-average molecular weights were observed (1.63 × 106 ≤ Mw ≤ 2.34 × 106 g/mol) which decreased when HBC10 concentration increased, and increased with Ra. The corresponding polydispersity indexes (Mw/Mn) were in the range of 1.55–2.30, showing relatively wide molar masses distributions. It was observed from differential scanning calorimetry that polymers with HBC10 presented two Tg (123 and 178 °C) which was ascribed to HBC10 incorporated to PMMA chain, corroborated by 1H NMR.",
author = "Vargas-Salazar, {Citlalli Y.} and Ovando-Medina, {V{\'i}ctor M.} and Raquel Ledezma-Rodr{\'i}guez and Peralta, {Ren{\'e} D.} and Hugo Mart{\'i}nez-Guti{\'e}rrez",
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doi = "10.1007/s13726-014-0298-8",
language = "American English",
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Ultrasound-assisted polymerization of methyl methacrylate using the reactive surfactant Hitenol BC10 in a semicontinuous heterophase process. / Vargas-Salazar, Citlalli Y.; Ovando-Medina, Víctor M.; Ledezma-Rodríguez, Raquel; Peralta, René D.; Martínez-Gutiérrez, Hugo.

In: Iranian Polymer Journal (English Edition), 01.01.2014, p. 41-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ultrasound-assisted polymerization of methyl methacrylate using the reactive surfactant Hitenol BC10 in a semicontinuous heterophase process

AU - Vargas-Salazar, Citlalli Y.

AU - Ovando-Medina, Víctor M.

AU - Ledezma-Rodríguez, Raquel

AU - Peralta, René D.

AU - Martínez-Gutiérrez, Hugo

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - © 2014, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute. Semicontinuous heterophase polymerization was used to polymerize methyl methacrylate (MMA) with the reactive surfactant Hitenol BC10 (polyoxyethylene(10)alkylphenyl ether ammonium sulfate, HBC10) in the presence of ultrasound at 50 °C. The effects of HBC10 concentrations and the monomer addition rate (Ra) on kinetics, colloidal behavior, and molar masses were studied. Latexes with polymer content between 20 and 24 % were obtained. Particle size distributions (PSD) of latexes without HBC10 were bimodal, whereas those obtained in the presence of HBC10 were mono-modal in all cases. The average particle diameters (Dp) were in the range of 39–63 nm decreasing with the HBC10 concentration and increasing with Ra. Polymerization rates (Rp) were decreased, by increasing the HBC10 concentration, which was ascribed to chain transfer events to HBC10. It was also observed that Rp increased with Ra; however, monomer-starved conditions were favored at lower Ra values. Very high-average molecular weights were observed (1.63 × 106 ≤ Mw ≤ 2.34 × 106 g/mol) which decreased when HBC10 concentration increased, and increased with Ra. The corresponding polydispersity indexes (Mw/Mn) were in the range of 1.55–2.30, showing relatively wide molar masses distributions. It was observed from differential scanning calorimetry that polymers with HBC10 presented two Tg (123 and 178 °C) which was ascribed to HBC10 incorporated to PMMA chain, corroborated by 1H NMR.

AB - © 2014, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute. Semicontinuous heterophase polymerization was used to polymerize methyl methacrylate (MMA) with the reactive surfactant Hitenol BC10 (polyoxyethylene(10)alkylphenyl ether ammonium sulfate, HBC10) in the presence of ultrasound at 50 °C. The effects of HBC10 concentrations and the monomer addition rate (Ra) on kinetics, colloidal behavior, and molar masses were studied. Latexes with polymer content between 20 and 24 % were obtained. Particle size distributions (PSD) of latexes without HBC10 were bimodal, whereas those obtained in the presence of HBC10 were mono-modal in all cases. The average particle diameters (Dp) were in the range of 39–63 nm decreasing with the HBC10 concentration and increasing with Ra. Polymerization rates (Rp) were decreased, by increasing the HBC10 concentration, which was ascribed to chain transfer events to HBC10. It was also observed that Rp increased with Ra; however, monomer-starved conditions were favored at lower Ra values. Very high-average molecular weights were observed (1.63 × 106 ≤ Mw ≤ 2.34 × 106 g/mol) which decreased when HBC10 concentration increased, and increased with Ra. The corresponding polydispersity indexes (Mw/Mn) were in the range of 1.55–2.30, showing relatively wide molar masses distributions. It was observed from differential scanning calorimetry that polymers with HBC10 presented two Tg (123 and 178 °C) which was ascribed to HBC10 incorporated to PMMA chain, corroborated by 1H NMR.

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