Thermodynamic analysis of the soda ash smelting of lead acid battery residue in a rotary furnace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

A thermodynamic analysis of the rotary furnace process for the recovery of lead from battery residue by carbothermic reduction with soda ash (Na2CO3) was performed. Suitable models were selected to represent the thermodynamic behaviour of the bullion, matte, slag and gas phases. Equilibrium considerations and mass balances were performed in order to determine the effect of input parameters such as carbon and soda ash additions on the lead recovery. The processing of battery residue is characterized chemically by two distinct regimes, oxidizing and reducing, the occurrence of which depends on the amount of reductants added (carbon and iron). A maximum in the lead is predicted by the model at a critical range of concentration of reductants, which depends on the Pb, PbSO4, PbS and PbO2 contents of the charge. The thermodynamic model was adapted to the rotary furnace process to diminish the lead in the discarded matte-slag from 5-8wt.% Pb to about 1-2wt.% Pb. A 20% excess of carbon was added to achieve the highest lead recovery. It was found that by increasing the Fe/Fe2O3 mass ratio in the iron chips from 1/9 to 7/3 the slag viscosity diminished and the furnace operation became closer to the equilibrium condition. © 1997 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)121-130
Number of pages107
JournalCanadian Metallurgical Quarterly
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1997
Externally publishedYes

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Ashes
Lead acid batteries
Smelting
Thermodynamics
Furnaces
Lead
Acids
Slags
Carbon
Reducing Agents
Recovery
Iron
Carbothermal reduction
Viscosity
Coal ash
Gases
Processing

Cite this

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title = "Thermodynamic analysis of the soda ash smelting of lead acid battery residue in a rotary furnace",
abstract = "A thermodynamic analysis of the rotary furnace process for the recovery of lead from battery residue by carbothermic reduction with soda ash (Na2CO3) was performed. Suitable models were selected to represent the thermodynamic behaviour of the bullion, matte, slag and gas phases. Equilibrium considerations and mass balances were performed in order to determine the effect of input parameters such as carbon and soda ash additions on the lead recovery. The processing of battery residue is characterized chemically by two distinct regimes, oxidizing and reducing, the occurrence of which depends on the amount of reductants added (carbon and iron). A maximum in the lead is predicted by the model at a critical range of concentration of reductants, which depends on the Pb, PbSO4, PbS and PbO2 contents of the charge. The thermodynamic model was adapted to the rotary furnace process to diminish the lead in the discarded matte-slag from 5-8wt.{\%} Pb to about 1-2wt.{\%} Pb. A 20{\%} excess of carbon was added to achieve the highest lead recovery. It was found that by increasing the Fe/Fe2O3 mass ratio in the iron chips from 1/9 to 7/3 the slag viscosity diminished and the furnace operation became closer to the equilibrium condition. {\circledC} 1997 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.",
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Thermodynamic analysis of the soda ash smelting of lead acid battery residue in a rotary furnace. / Guerrero, A.; Romero, A.; Morales, R. D.; Chavez, F.

In: Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 01.01.1997, p. 121-130.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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