The effect of different operational parameters on the electrooxidation of indigo carmine on Ti/IrO <inf>2</inf> -SnO <inf>2</inf> -Sb <inf>2</inf> O <inf>3</inf>

Ricardo E. Palma-Goyes, Javier Silva-Agredo, Jorge Vazquez-Arenas, Issis Romero-Ibarra, Ricardo A. Torres-Palma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The electrochemical oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) is evaluated on a Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) made up of Sb 2 O 3 doped Ti/IrO 2 -SnO 2 (Ir-Sn-Sb). Particular efforts are devoted to investigate different electrochemical parameters including current density, IC concentration, initial pH of the solution, and the content of multiple ions (Cl - , SO 4-2 or HCO 3- ) typically found in textile dyeing wastewater. The IC removal efficiency is calculated using the following physicochemical parameters: color removal (611 nm), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD mg L -1 O 2 ), Total Organic Carbon (TOC mg L -1 C) and Average Oxidation State (AOS). The results reveal that IC oxidation is enhanced in the presence of chlorides due to the action of active chlorine species (Cl 2 -active) electrogenerated on the anode surface. In this medium, the initial oxidation rate of IC was higher at pH 2 than any other value including natural pH of 6.62 and 10. Both the increase of the chloride concentration in the electrolyte and the rise of current density expedite the color removal with a lower energetic consumption. Optimum treatment conditions were found using 0.25 mol L -1 NaCl at pH 2 and applying 9.375 mA cm -2 . Under these conditions, a total color removal is achieved, along with 77.5% COD, 24% TOC and the rise of AOS value to 2.9. High performance liquid chromatography analysis and mass spectrometry provide insights concerning the first degradation stages, involving the attacks of electrogenerated HClO in the double bond C=C chromophore group of IC, thus, generating isatin-5-sulfonic acid (m/z 226) as the main reaction intermediate. This compound is subsequently removed to form aliphatic byproducts. COD removal and the final AOS value suggest that the electrochemical process transforms the IC to biodegradable intermediates, which can be eventually eliminated in a subsequent biological treatment.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3010-3017
Number of pages2708
JournalJournal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2018

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Indigo Carmine
Electrooxidation
oxidation
Oxidation
Anodes
Current density
Color removal (water treatment)
Reaction intermediates
Chlorides
chloride
Electrochemical oxidation
Chemical oxygen demand
High performance liquid chromatography
Chromophores
Organic carbon
Dyeing
Chlorine
Mass spectrometry
Byproducts
density current

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@article{e8ad47a811e74f3c8ae75db00ff08b3f,
title = "The effect of different operational parameters on the electrooxidation of indigo carmine on Ti/IrO 2 -SnO 2 -Sb 2 O 3",
abstract = "{\circledC} 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The electrochemical oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) is evaluated on a Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) made up of Sb 2 O 3 doped Ti/IrO 2 -SnO 2 (Ir-Sn-Sb). Particular efforts are devoted to investigate different electrochemical parameters including current density, IC concentration, initial pH of the solution, and the content of multiple ions (Cl - , SO 4-2 or HCO 3- ) typically found in textile dyeing wastewater. The IC removal efficiency is calculated using the following physicochemical parameters: color removal (611 nm), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD mg L -1 O 2 ), Total Organic Carbon (TOC mg L -1 C) and Average Oxidation State (AOS). The results reveal that IC oxidation is enhanced in the presence of chlorides due to the action of active chlorine species (Cl 2 -active) electrogenerated on the anode surface. In this medium, the initial oxidation rate of IC was higher at pH 2 than any other value including natural pH of 6.62 and 10. Both the increase of the chloride concentration in the electrolyte and the rise of current density expedite the color removal with a lower energetic consumption. Optimum treatment conditions were found using 0.25 mol L -1 NaCl at pH 2 and applying 9.375 mA cm -2 . Under these conditions, a total color removal is achieved, along with 77.5{\%} COD, 24{\%} TOC and the rise of AOS value to 2.9. High performance liquid chromatography analysis and mass spectrometry provide insights concerning the first degradation stages, involving the attacks of electrogenerated HClO in the double bond C=C chromophore group of IC, thus, generating isatin-5-sulfonic acid (m/z 226) as the main reaction intermediate. This compound is subsequently removed to form aliphatic byproducts. COD removal and the final AOS value suggest that the electrochemical process transforms the IC to biodegradable intermediates, which can be eventually eliminated in a subsequent biological treatment.",
author = "Palma-Goyes, {Ricardo E.} and Javier Silva-Agredo and Jorge Vazquez-Arenas and Issis Romero-Ibarra and Torres-Palma, {Ricardo A.}",
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The effect of different operational parameters on the electrooxidation of indigo carmine on Ti/IrO <inf>2</inf> -SnO <inf>2</inf> -Sb <inf>2</inf> O <inf>3</inf> / Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E.; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Vazquez-Arenas, Jorge; Romero-Ibarra, Issis; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A.

In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 01.04.2018, p. 3010-3017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of different operational parameters on the electrooxidation of indigo carmine on Ti/IrO 2 -SnO 2 -Sb 2 O 3

AU - Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E.

AU - Silva-Agredo, Javier

AU - Vazquez-Arenas, Jorge

AU - Romero-Ibarra, Issis

AU - Torres-Palma, Ricardo A.

PY - 2018/4/1

Y1 - 2018/4/1

N2 - © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The electrochemical oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) is evaluated on a Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) made up of Sb 2 O 3 doped Ti/IrO 2 -SnO 2 (Ir-Sn-Sb). Particular efforts are devoted to investigate different electrochemical parameters including current density, IC concentration, initial pH of the solution, and the content of multiple ions (Cl - , SO 4-2 or HCO 3- ) typically found in textile dyeing wastewater. The IC removal efficiency is calculated using the following physicochemical parameters: color removal (611 nm), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD mg L -1 O 2 ), Total Organic Carbon (TOC mg L -1 C) and Average Oxidation State (AOS). The results reveal that IC oxidation is enhanced in the presence of chlorides due to the action of active chlorine species (Cl 2 -active) electrogenerated on the anode surface. In this medium, the initial oxidation rate of IC was higher at pH 2 than any other value including natural pH of 6.62 and 10. Both the increase of the chloride concentration in the electrolyte and the rise of current density expedite the color removal with a lower energetic consumption. Optimum treatment conditions were found using 0.25 mol L -1 NaCl at pH 2 and applying 9.375 mA cm -2 . Under these conditions, a total color removal is achieved, along with 77.5% COD, 24% TOC and the rise of AOS value to 2.9. High performance liquid chromatography analysis and mass spectrometry provide insights concerning the first degradation stages, involving the attacks of electrogenerated HClO in the double bond C=C chromophore group of IC, thus, generating isatin-5-sulfonic acid (m/z 226) as the main reaction intermediate. This compound is subsequently removed to form aliphatic byproducts. COD removal and the final AOS value suggest that the electrochemical process transforms the IC to biodegradable intermediates, which can be eventually eliminated in a subsequent biological treatment.

AB - © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The electrochemical oxidation of indigo carmine (IC) is evaluated on a Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) made up of Sb 2 O 3 doped Ti/IrO 2 -SnO 2 (Ir-Sn-Sb). Particular efforts are devoted to investigate different electrochemical parameters including current density, IC concentration, initial pH of the solution, and the content of multiple ions (Cl - , SO 4-2 or HCO 3- ) typically found in textile dyeing wastewater. The IC removal efficiency is calculated using the following physicochemical parameters: color removal (611 nm), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD mg L -1 O 2 ), Total Organic Carbon (TOC mg L -1 C) and Average Oxidation State (AOS). The results reveal that IC oxidation is enhanced in the presence of chlorides due to the action of active chlorine species (Cl 2 -active) electrogenerated on the anode surface. In this medium, the initial oxidation rate of IC was higher at pH 2 than any other value including natural pH of 6.62 and 10. Both the increase of the chloride concentration in the electrolyte and the rise of current density expedite the color removal with a lower energetic consumption. Optimum treatment conditions were found using 0.25 mol L -1 NaCl at pH 2 and applying 9.375 mA cm -2 . Under these conditions, a total color removal is achieved, along with 77.5% COD, 24% TOC and the rise of AOS value to 2.9. High performance liquid chromatography analysis and mass spectrometry provide insights concerning the first degradation stages, involving the attacks of electrogenerated HClO in the double bond C=C chromophore group of IC, thus, generating isatin-5-sulfonic acid (m/z 226) as the main reaction intermediate. This compound is subsequently removed to form aliphatic byproducts. COD removal and the final AOS value suggest that the electrochemical process transforms the IC to biodegradable intermediates, which can be eventually eliminated in a subsequent biological treatment.

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