In this paper, we explore the advantages of a fractional calculus based watermarking system for detecting Gaussian watermarks. To reach this goal, we selected a typical watermarking scheme and replaced the detection equation set by another set of equations derived from fractional calculus principles; then, we carried out a statistical assessment of the performance of both schemes by analyzing the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and the False Positive Percentage (FPP) when they are used to detect Gaussian watermarks. The results show that the ROC of a fractional equation based scheme has 48.3% more Area Under the Curve (AUC) and a False Positives Percentage median of 0.2% whilst the selected typical watermarking scheme has 3%. In addition, the experimental results suggest that the target applications of fractional schemes for detecting Gaussian watermarks are as a semi-fragile image watermarking systems robust to Gaussian noise.
- False positive rate
- Fractional calculus
- Gaussian watermarks
- Semi-fragile watermarking system
- Statistical assessment