The disposal of water for human use and consumption, as well as its pollution by anthropogenic activities, is an issue of worldwide concern, mainly because of the amount of diseases and deaths that they generate in the population. In this chapter, an analysis is presented about the importance of water, the types of pollutants present in water and their sources of pollution. Likewise, it highlights the importance of adsorption processes as a technology of easy implementation and low cost in the treatment of water which uses various adsorbent materials such as bone char. Animal bone chars represent a versatile adsorbent alternative because of the diversity of pollutants that can be removed from aqueous solutions, among which are heavy metals, anions and organic contaminants. These materials can be synthesized from animal bones such as pork, chicken, cow, fish, sheep, among others. Similarly, this study includes a bibliometric analysis on the study of bone chars, characteristics, uses, synthesis methods, characterization, removal mechanisms and some case studies on their environmental application in the removal of pollutants from water such as fluoride, cadmium and triclosan.