Production, commercialization, and intellectual property of transgenic crops in Latin America: A state of the art review

Alejandro Barragán-Ocaña, Gerardo Reyes-Ruiz, Samuel Olmos-Peña, Hortensia Gómez-Viquez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


© 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: Transgenic crops have been increasingly adopted, produced and commercialized throughout the world. Correspondingly, the management of intellectual property rights concerning transgenic crops has gained importance. In this context, it is necessary to understand the status quo of transgenic crop production, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general scenario of transgenic crops and their growth around the world, especially in Latin America. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review was carried out to determine the status of intellectual property protection, production and commercialization of transgenic crops. Findings: Opinions concerning the risks and benefits of adopting transgenics are markedly divided. Its presence in the agricultural sector has undoubtedly taken a firm hold in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, there are some areas of the international transgenics industry that need further and ongoing discussion and assessment, such as biosafety, intellectual property, regulation and legislation, among others. Additionally, in developing countries, and especially in the case of Latin America, other relevant issues to be addressed are associated with the conservation of local plant varieties and the preservation of cultural values, as well as the development of endogenous technology to solve local problems and the integration of farmers and the society at large and their interests into the discussion. Research limitations/implications: The most significant limitation of the present study was the lack of available data. Future studies using larger data sets will allow for more robust statistical analyses. Additionally, country-specific studies focused on the most important crops, those that each country grows intensively, are necessary for a better insight into the global dynamics of the sector; these studies must stress the intellectual property mechanisms used and address biosafety and regulatory issues, among other areas. Originality/value: The present study represents a starting point for establishing schemes to facilitate the proper development and management of transgenic technology based on regional interests and the guiding principles of ethics and biosecurity.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)333-351
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies
StatePublished - 26 Sep 2019


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