Phenotypic and genomic analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 mutants with enhanced ethanol tolerance

Ofelia E. Carreón-Rodríguez, Rosa María Gutiérrez-Ríos, José L. Acosta, Alfredo Martinez, Miguel A. Cevallos

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4 Scopus citations


Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 is an ethanol-producing microbe that is constitutively tolerant to this solvent. For a better understanding of the ethanol tolerance phenomenon we obtained and characterized two ZM4 mutants (ER79ap and ER79ag) with higher ethanol tolerance than the wild-type. Mutants were evaluated in different ethanol concentrations and this analysis showed that mutant ER79ap was more tolerant and had a better performance in terms of cell viability, than the wild-type strain and ER79ag mutant. Genotyping of the mutant strains showed that both carry non-synonymous mutations in clpP and spoT/relA genes. A third non-synonymous mutation was found only in strain ER79ap, in the clpB gene. Considering that ER79ap has the best tolerance to added ethanol, the mutant alleles of this strain were evaluated in ZM4 and here we show that while all of them contribute to ethanol tolerance, mutation within spoT/relA gene seems to be the most important.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00328
JournalBiotechnology Reports
StatePublished - Sep 2019


  • Adaptive evolution
  • Ethanol tolerance
  • Genome sequencing
  • Inoculum size
  • spoT/relA
  • Zymomonas mobilis


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