Nanoindentation study on apple tissue and isolated cells by atomic force microscopy, image and fractal analysis

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Abstract

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of apple tissue (Malus domestica var. Golden Delicious) and isolated cells. Young's modulus (E) obtained for the tissue was 0.86 ± 0.81 MPa, while for isolated cells an average value of 0.63 ± 0.42 MPa was found. The fractal dimension of the distribution of E (FDE) was estimated to be 1.81 for tissue and 2.47 for isolated cells, which indicates more anisotropic structures in single cell topography in comparison with the tissue. Finally, an image texture analysis was performed and different values were obtained; for roughness Ra = 49.70 ± 23 and 18.00 ± 3, entropy Ent = 5.26 ± 0.66 and 5.70 ± 0.23 and for the fractal dimension of the texture image FDT = 2.55 ± 0.02 and 2.62 ± 0.03, for tissue and isolated cells respectively. Industrial relevance AFM is rarely used to evaluate the structural and mechanical properties of food materials. AFM studies could provide insight on food properties. For example, the nanoindentation of cells by AFM could be used to follow-up changes to the mechanical properties that occur during the processing and storage of fruits with industrial relevance such as apple. Study of the nanostructure and nanomechanical properties of vegetable cells could lead to a more in-depth understanding of the relationship structure-functionality in foodstuffs. This could be applied to address several issues, such as extending the storage life of climacteric fruits, verifying the structural modifications of the tissues when they are chemically treated and having a better control of mechanical and structural properties. Currently, fractal and image analysis is gaining attention in the food science industry. Their application allows one to obtain quantitative information from nanoindentation data and AFM images which can be related to structural modifications which occur during ripening and processing of climacteric fruits. This methodology could be extended to other food materials.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)234-242
Number of pages209
JournalInnovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2016

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Fractals
atomic force microscopy
Atomic Force Microscopy
Malus
Nanoindentation
Atomic force microscopy
apples
Tissue
Fruits
Mechanical properties
mechanical properties
Fruit
cells
Fractal dimension
fractal dimensions
Structural properties
Food
fruits
Image texture
texture

Cite this

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title = "Nanoindentation study on apple tissue and isolated cells by atomic force microscopy, image and fractal analysis",
abstract = "{\circledC} 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of apple tissue (Malus domestica var. Golden Delicious) and isolated cells. Young's modulus (E) obtained for the tissue was 0.86 ± 0.81 MPa, while for isolated cells an average value of 0.63 ± 0.42 MPa was found. The fractal dimension of the distribution of E (FDE) was estimated to be 1.81 for tissue and 2.47 for isolated cells, which indicates more anisotropic structures in single cell topography in comparison with the tissue. Finally, an image texture analysis was performed and different values were obtained; for roughness Ra = 49.70 ± 23 and 18.00 ± 3, entropy Ent = 5.26 ± 0.66 and 5.70 ± 0.23 and for the fractal dimension of the texture image FDT = 2.55 ± 0.02 and 2.62 ± 0.03, for tissue and isolated cells respectively. Industrial relevance AFM is rarely used to evaluate the structural and mechanical properties of food materials. AFM studies could provide insight on food properties. For example, the nanoindentation of cells by AFM could be used to follow-up changes to the mechanical properties that occur during the processing and storage of fruits with industrial relevance such as apple. Study of the nanostructure and nanomechanical properties of vegetable cells could lead to a more in-depth understanding of the relationship structure-functionality in foodstuffs. This could be applied to address several issues, such as extending the storage life of climacteric fruits, verifying the structural modifications of the tissues when they are chemically treated and having a better control of mechanical and structural properties. Currently, fractal and image analysis is gaining attention in the food science industry. Their application allows one to obtain quantitative information from nanoindentation data and AFM images which can be related to structural modifications which occur during ripening and processing of climacteric fruits. This methodology could be extended to other food materials.",
author = "S. C{\'a}rdenas-P{\'e}rez and Chanona-P{\'e}rez, {J. J.} and M{\'e}ndez-M{\'e}ndez, {J. V.} and G. Calder{\'o}n-Dom{\'i}nguez and R. L{\'o}pez-Santiago and I. Arzate-V{\'a}zquez",
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doi = "10.1016/j.ifset.2016.02.004",
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T1 - Nanoindentation study on apple tissue and isolated cells by atomic force microscopy, image and fractal analysis

AU - Cárdenas-Pérez, S.

AU - Chanona-Pérez, J. J.

AU - Méndez-Méndez, J. V.

AU - Calderón-Domínguez, G.

AU - López-Santiago, R.

AU - Arzate-Vázquez, I.

PY - 2016/4/1

Y1 - 2016/4/1

N2 - © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of apple tissue (Malus domestica var. Golden Delicious) and isolated cells. Young's modulus (E) obtained for the tissue was 0.86 ± 0.81 MPa, while for isolated cells an average value of 0.63 ± 0.42 MPa was found. The fractal dimension of the distribution of E (FDE) was estimated to be 1.81 for tissue and 2.47 for isolated cells, which indicates more anisotropic structures in single cell topography in comparison with the tissue. Finally, an image texture analysis was performed and different values were obtained; for roughness Ra = 49.70 ± 23 and 18.00 ± 3, entropy Ent = 5.26 ± 0.66 and 5.70 ± 0.23 and for the fractal dimension of the texture image FDT = 2.55 ± 0.02 and 2.62 ± 0.03, for tissue and isolated cells respectively. Industrial relevance AFM is rarely used to evaluate the structural and mechanical properties of food materials. AFM studies could provide insight on food properties. For example, the nanoindentation of cells by AFM could be used to follow-up changes to the mechanical properties that occur during the processing and storage of fruits with industrial relevance such as apple. Study of the nanostructure and nanomechanical properties of vegetable cells could lead to a more in-depth understanding of the relationship structure-functionality in foodstuffs. This could be applied to address several issues, such as extending the storage life of climacteric fruits, verifying the structural modifications of the tissues when they are chemically treated and having a better control of mechanical and structural properties. Currently, fractal and image analysis is gaining attention in the food science industry. Their application allows one to obtain quantitative information from nanoindentation data and AFM images which can be related to structural modifications which occur during ripening and processing of climacteric fruits. This methodology could be extended to other food materials.

AB - © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of apple tissue (Malus domestica var. Golden Delicious) and isolated cells. Young's modulus (E) obtained for the tissue was 0.86 ± 0.81 MPa, while for isolated cells an average value of 0.63 ± 0.42 MPa was found. The fractal dimension of the distribution of E (FDE) was estimated to be 1.81 for tissue and 2.47 for isolated cells, which indicates more anisotropic structures in single cell topography in comparison with the tissue. Finally, an image texture analysis was performed and different values were obtained; for roughness Ra = 49.70 ± 23 and 18.00 ± 3, entropy Ent = 5.26 ± 0.66 and 5.70 ± 0.23 and for the fractal dimension of the texture image FDT = 2.55 ± 0.02 and 2.62 ± 0.03, for tissue and isolated cells respectively. Industrial relevance AFM is rarely used to evaluate the structural and mechanical properties of food materials. AFM studies could provide insight on food properties. For example, the nanoindentation of cells by AFM could be used to follow-up changes to the mechanical properties that occur during the processing and storage of fruits with industrial relevance such as apple. Study of the nanostructure and nanomechanical properties of vegetable cells could lead to a more in-depth understanding of the relationship structure-functionality in foodstuffs. This could be applied to address several issues, such as extending the storage life of climacteric fruits, verifying the structural modifications of the tissues when they are chemically treated and having a better control of mechanical and structural properties. Currently, fractal and image analysis is gaining attention in the food science industry. Their application allows one to obtain quantitative information from nanoindentation data and AFM images which can be related to structural modifications which occur during ripening and processing of climacteric fruits. This methodology could be extended to other food materials.

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