Mycological and electron microscopic study of Solanum chrysotrichum saponin SC-2 antifungal activity on Candida species of medical significance

Armando Herrera-Arellano, María De Los Angeles Martínez-Rivera, Maribel Hernández-Cruz, Edgar Oliver López-Villegas, Aída Verónica Rodríguez-Tovar, Laura Alvarez, Silvia Marquina-Bahena, Víctor Manuel Navarro-García, Jaime Tortoriello

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Abstract

Solanum chrysotrichum is utilized in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of mycotic skin infections. Several microbiological studies have provided evidence of its antifungal activity against dermatophytes and yeasts. S. chrysotrichum saponins have been identified as a group of compounds with antifungal activity and saponin SC-2 has demonstrated to be the most active. Previous clinical studies have shown the therapeutic effectiveness of S. chrysotrichum-derived saponin-standardized herbal products in the treatment of Tinea pedis and Pityriasis capitis. There is no previous evidence of the activity of these saponins against Candida non-albicans species, or fluconazole- and ketoconazole-resistant Candida strains. The present study reports the biological activity of the SC-2 saponin (inhibitory concentration [IC 50] and minimum fungicide concentration [MFC]), against 12 Candida strains of clinical significance (C. albicans, five strains; C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis, two; C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. tropicalis, one), including some fluconazole (Fluco)- and ketoconazole (Keto)-resistant clinical isolates. In addition, SC-2-associated microstructural alterations were reported in four of the above-mentioned Candida species. Seven strains had IC50 of 200 μg/mL for SC-2, 400 μg/mL was found in four strains, and 800 μg/mL for a sole C. glabrata strain. Susceptibility to SC-2 saponin was as follows: C. albicans = C. lusitaniae > C. krusei > C. glabrata. The MFC was 800 μg/mL for the majority of strains (nine), 400 μg/mL for C. albicans (two strains) and C lusitaniae. The ultrastructural Candida changes originated by SC-2 included the following: 1) damage on cytoplasmic membrane and organelles; 2) changes in cell wall morphology and density, with separation of cytoplasmatic membrane from cell wall and disintegration of the latter; and 3) total degradation of cellular components and death. Changes were manifested from 6 h of incubation, reaching their maximum effect at 48 h. In conclusion, the saponin SC-2 possesses fungicide and fungistatic activity on different Candida albicans and non-albicans species (including some azole-resistant strains) with IC 50 values of 200 μg/mL (in Fluco-susceptible strains) and of 400 - 800 μg/mL (in Fluco-resistant strains). Additionally, we observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that saponin SC-2 causes severe changes in all fungal cell membranes, and to a lesser degree on the cell wall. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1568-1573
Number of pages1410
JournalPlanta Medica
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2007

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Solanum
Candida
fungicides
Saponins
Electrons
Fluconazole
Fungicides
electrons
azoles
Cell Wall
membranes
organelles
Ketoconazole
yeast
Cells
disintegration
infectious diseases
activity (biology)
Candida albicans
medicine

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Herrera-Arellano, Armando ; Martínez-Rivera, María De Los Angeles ; Hernández-Cruz, Maribel ; López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver ; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica ; Alvarez, Laura ; Marquina-Bahena, Silvia ; Navarro-García, Víctor Manuel ; Tortoriello, Jaime. / Mycological and electron microscopic study of Solanum chrysotrichum saponin SC-2 antifungal activity on Candida species of medical significance. In: Planta Medica. 2007 ; pp. 1568-1573.
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abstract = "Solanum chrysotrichum is utilized in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of mycotic skin infections. Several microbiological studies have provided evidence of its antifungal activity against dermatophytes and yeasts. S. chrysotrichum saponins have been identified as a group of compounds with antifungal activity and saponin SC-2 has demonstrated to be the most active. Previous clinical studies have shown the therapeutic effectiveness of S. chrysotrichum-derived saponin-standardized herbal products in the treatment of Tinea pedis and Pityriasis capitis. There is no previous evidence of the activity of these saponins against Candida non-albicans species, or fluconazole- and ketoconazole-resistant Candida strains. The present study reports the biological activity of the SC-2 saponin (inhibitory concentration [IC 50] and minimum fungicide concentration [MFC]), against 12 Candida strains of clinical significance (C. albicans, five strains; C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis, two; C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. tropicalis, one), including some fluconazole (Fluco)- and ketoconazole (Keto)-resistant clinical isolates. In addition, SC-2-associated microstructural alterations were reported in four of the above-mentioned Candida species. Seven strains had IC50 of 200 μg/mL for SC-2, 400 μg/mL was found in four strains, and 800 μg/mL for a sole C. glabrata strain. Susceptibility to SC-2 saponin was as follows: C. albicans = C. lusitaniae > C. krusei > C. glabrata. The MFC was 800 μg/mL for the majority of strains (nine), 400 μg/mL for C. albicans (two strains) and C lusitaniae. The ultrastructural Candida changes originated by SC-2 included the following: 1) damage on cytoplasmic membrane and organelles; 2) changes in cell wall morphology and density, with separation of cytoplasmatic membrane from cell wall and disintegration of the latter; and 3) total degradation of cellular components and death. Changes were manifested from 6 h of incubation, reaching their maximum effect at 48 h. In conclusion, the saponin SC-2 possesses fungicide and fungistatic activity on different Candida albicans and non-albicans species (including some azole-resistant strains) with IC 50 values of 200 μg/mL (in Fluco-susceptible strains) and of 400 - 800 μg/mL (in Fluco-resistant strains). Additionally, we observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that saponin SC-2 causes severe changes in all fungal cell membranes, and to a lesser degree on the cell wall. {\circledC} Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.",
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Mycological and electron microscopic study of Solanum chrysotrichum saponin SC-2 antifungal activity on Candida species of medical significance. / Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Martínez-Rivera, María De Los Angeles; Hernández-Cruz, Maribel; López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica; Alvarez, Laura; Marquina-Bahena, Silvia; Navarro-García, Víctor Manuel; Tortoriello, Jaime.

In: Planta Medica, 01.12.2007, p. 1568-1573.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Mycological and electron microscopic study of Solanum chrysotrichum saponin SC-2 antifungal activity on Candida species of medical significance

AU - Herrera-Arellano, Armando

AU - Martínez-Rivera, María De Los Angeles

AU - Hernández-Cruz, Maribel

AU - López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver

AU - Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica

AU - Alvarez, Laura

AU - Marquina-Bahena, Silvia

AU - Navarro-García, Víctor Manuel

AU - Tortoriello, Jaime

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Y1 - 2007/12/1

N2 - Solanum chrysotrichum is utilized in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of mycotic skin infections. Several microbiological studies have provided evidence of its antifungal activity against dermatophytes and yeasts. S. chrysotrichum saponins have been identified as a group of compounds with antifungal activity and saponin SC-2 has demonstrated to be the most active. Previous clinical studies have shown the therapeutic effectiveness of S. chrysotrichum-derived saponin-standardized herbal products in the treatment of Tinea pedis and Pityriasis capitis. There is no previous evidence of the activity of these saponins against Candida non-albicans species, or fluconazole- and ketoconazole-resistant Candida strains. The present study reports the biological activity of the SC-2 saponin (inhibitory concentration [IC 50] and minimum fungicide concentration [MFC]), against 12 Candida strains of clinical significance (C. albicans, five strains; C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis, two; C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. tropicalis, one), including some fluconazole (Fluco)- and ketoconazole (Keto)-resistant clinical isolates. In addition, SC-2-associated microstructural alterations were reported in four of the above-mentioned Candida species. Seven strains had IC50 of 200 μg/mL for SC-2, 400 μg/mL was found in four strains, and 800 μg/mL for a sole C. glabrata strain. Susceptibility to SC-2 saponin was as follows: C. albicans = C. lusitaniae > C. krusei > C. glabrata. The MFC was 800 μg/mL for the majority of strains (nine), 400 μg/mL for C. albicans (two strains) and C lusitaniae. The ultrastructural Candida changes originated by SC-2 included the following: 1) damage on cytoplasmic membrane and organelles; 2) changes in cell wall morphology and density, with separation of cytoplasmatic membrane from cell wall and disintegration of the latter; and 3) total degradation of cellular components and death. Changes were manifested from 6 h of incubation, reaching their maximum effect at 48 h. In conclusion, the saponin SC-2 possesses fungicide and fungistatic activity on different Candida albicans and non-albicans species (including some azole-resistant strains) with IC 50 values of 200 μg/mL (in Fluco-susceptible strains) and of 400 - 800 μg/mL (in Fluco-resistant strains). Additionally, we observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that saponin SC-2 causes severe changes in all fungal cell membranes, and to a lesser degree on the cell wall. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

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