Modeling dendritic cell pulsed immunotherapy for mice with melanoma-protocols for success and recurrence

Juan Carlos Chimal-Eguia, Erandi Castillo-Montiel, Julio Cesar Rangel-Reyes, Ricardo Teodoro Paez-Hernández

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nowadays, immunotherapy has become an important alternative to fight cancer. One way in which biologists and medics use immunotherapy is by injecting antigen-incubated Dendritic Cells (DCs) into mice to stimulate an immune response. The DCs optimal quantities and infusion times for a successful cancer eradication are often unknown to the therapists; usually, these quantities are obtained by testing various protocols. The article shows a model of five differential equations which represents some interactions between some cells of the immune system and tumor cells which is used to test different infusion protocols of Dendritic Cells. This study aims to find operation ranges to DCs quantities and injection times for which the therapy reduces the tumor significantly. To that end, an exhaustive search of operative protocols is performed using simulations of a mathematical model. Furthermore, nonlinear analysis of the model reveals that without the DC therapy tumor cells cannot stay under non-lethal bounds. Finally, we show that a pulsed periodic therapy can prevent tumor relapsing when the doses and period times lie within a certain range.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3199
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2021


  • Biological system modeling
  • Differential equations
  • Immunotherapy
  • Nonlinear analysis


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