Lead recovery from a lead concentrate throughout direct smelting reduction process with mixtures of na2co3 and sic to 1000c

Víctor Hugo Gutiérrez Pérez, Juan Daniel Osorio Hernández, Ricardo Gerardo Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro Cruz Ramírez, Seydy Lizbeth Olvera Vázquez, Jorge Enrique Rivera Salinas

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Lead was recovered through a direct smelting reduction route from a lead concentrate by using mixtures of Na2CO3 and SiC to 1000C. The lead concentrate was obtained from the mining State of Zacatecas, México by traditional mineral processing and froth flotation. The experimental trials showed that 86 wt.% of lead with a purity up to 97% can be recovered from the lead concentrate by a single step reduction process when 40 wt.% Na2CO3 and 0.4 g SiC were used in the initial charge. The process was modeled in the thermodynamic software FactSage 7.3 to evaluate the effect of adding different amounts of Na2CO3 on the lead recovery rates while holding constant the SiC amount and temperature. The stability phase diagram obtained showed that an addition of 34 wt.% Na2CO3 was enough to reach the highest lead recovery. It was observed that the interaction of Na2CO3 and SiC at a high temperature promotes the formation of C and Na2O, and SiO2, respectively, where the Na2O partially bonds with silica and sulfur forming Na2S and sodium silicates which may decrease the SO2 emissions and increase the weather degradation of the slag. The PbS was mainly reduced by the produced C and CO formed by the interaction between Na2CO3 and SiC at 1000C. The predicted results reasonably match with those obtained experimentally in the lead recovery rates and compounds formation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number58
JournalMetals
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Direct reduction
  • Lead concentrate
  • NaCO
  • SiC
  • Slag

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