© 2015, Asociacion de Antropologos Iberoamericanos en Red. All rights reserved. The aim of this article is to describe how farmers of indigenous communities respond to climate variations in Chilchota, Michoacán, Mexico. It is important to know which are the emerging processes affecting their food crop production, while that may increase vulnerability of these communities. This contribution presents seven different kinds of farmer’s adaptations, the factors that influence their capacity to cope with climatic variations, and the socioeconomic differences among farmers. Attention is placed on the importance of political and historical relationships that limit adaptive responses at the regional level. At the same time, the discursive framework of State and capitalized farmers is identified, which benefits “modern agribusiness” and contributes to dismiss collective responses based on traditional and agro-ecological knowledge.