Heated extrusion was tested as an alternative process for incorporating "hard-to-cook" beans into food products. A 32 factorial design was used to evaluate extrusion conditions for a 40/60 (w/w) blend of "hard-to-cook" beans and quality protein maize. Tested extrusion variables were temperature (155, 170 and 185 °C) and moisture content (15.5, 17.5 and 19.5 g/100 g). Screw speed was fixed at 130 rpm. The extrudates obtained at 155 and 170 °C with 15.5% moisture had the best physical characteristics and were chosen for comparative analysis of nutritional changes between the unprocessed "hard-to-cook" bean/quality protein maize flour blend and the resulting extrudates. In vitro protein digestibility was higher in the extrudates (80%) than in the flour blend (76%). In vitro starch digestibility was higher at 155 °C (89%) and 170 °C (92%) than in the flour blend (12%). Processing conditions decreased dietary fibre content by 38% at 155 °C and 44% at 170 °C. © 2008 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology.
Ruiz-Ruiz, J., Martínez-Ayala, A., Drago, S., González, R., Betancur-Ancona, D., & Chel-Guerrero, L. (2008). Extrusion of a hard-to-cook bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) flour blend. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 1799-1807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.01.005