Extruded snacks from whole wheat supplemented with textured soy flour: Effect on instrumental and sensory textural characteristics

Arturo Rodríguez-Vidal, Héctor Eduardo Martínez-Flores, Eva González Jasso, Gonzalo Velázquez de la Cruz, Aurea K. Ramírez-Jiménez, Eduardo Morales-Sánchez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The quality of extruded snacks can be affected not only by processing conditions, but also by some factors like the concentration and type of ingredients incorporated in their formulation and the working conditions used. Although the process conditions have been established with measurable textural properties, sensory qualities have not been correlated with these responses in expanded extruded snacks made with added functional ingredients. Therefore, in this study the effect of adding textured soy flour (TSF) and whole wheat flour (WWF) to refined wheat flour in the production of extruded snacks and expanded with hot air was evaluated. A response surface design using two levels with five central points was applied to obtain the best combinations of functional ingredients added, holding the parameters of the extrusion process and moisture of treatments. Some texture characteristics and sensory analysis were used as response variables, such as, hardness, fracturability, toughness, crispness, granularity, and chewiness. Likewise, the rate of expansion was evaluated. The results showed that the level of substitution of WWF, especially levels of 15%, had a significant effect on the hardness perceived by the panelist during sensory evaluation. The TSF at concentrations of ≥15%, favored the fracturability and crispness of the samples. It was found that the best expansion index was with the combination of 5% TSF and 15% WWF. Although a correlation between instrumental and sensory tests carried out on the extruded snacks expanded was not found. Practical applications: The physical characteristics of the extruded snacks such as expansion, hardness, and density are important parameters in terms of consumer acceptability of the final product as well as their functional properties. In other words, the appearance and texture are two of the most important attributes that can be seen in snack foods. In particular, the texture can be measured by intrinsic tests: objective (instrumental) and subjective (sensory). That is because the instrumental analysis provides parameters such as firmness, brittleness, consistency, chewiness, among others, when subjected to different stress, strain, and strain rates at the snacks. Similarly, sensory analysis, allows us to see features that include mechanical attributes (concerning the reaction to the applied force), geometric attributes (concerning the shape, size, and orientation of the particles within the food), and attributes related to the perception of moisture or fat content.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)249-257
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Texture Studies
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Snacks
soy flour
snacks
Flour
Triticum
hardness
whole wheat flour
wheat
Hardness
sensory evaluation
ingredients
chewiness
texture
snack foods
working conditions
wheat flour
extrusion
functional properties
firmness
sensory properties

Cite this

@article{641242a5ec5942a08f9eb3dc8175d27f,
title = "Extruded snacks from whole wheat supplemented with textured soy flour: Effect on instrumental and sensory textural characteristics",
abstract = "{\circledC} 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The quality of extruded snacks can be affected not only by processing conditions, but also by some factors like the concentration and type of ingredients incorporated in their formulation and the working conditions used. Although the process conditions have been established with measurable textural properties, sensory qualities have not been correlated with these responses in expanded extruded snacks made with added functional ingredients. Therefore, in this study the effect of adding textured soy flour (TSF) and whole wheat flour (WWF) to refined wheat flour in the production of extruded snacks and expanded with hot air was evaluated. A response surface design using two levels with five central points was applied to obtain the best combinations of functional ingredients added, holding the parameters of the extrusion process and moisture of treatments. Some texture characteristics and sensory analysis were used as response variables, such as, hardness, fracturability, toughness, crispness, granularity, and chewiness. Likewise, the rate of expansion was evaluated. The results showed that the level of substitution of WWF, especially levels of 15{\%}, had a significant effect on the hardness perceived by the panelist during sensory evaluation. The TSF at concentrations of ≥15{\%}, favored the fracturability and crispness of the samples. It was found that the best expansion index was with the combination of 5{\%} TSF and 15{\%} WWF. Although a correlation between instrumental and sensory tests carried out on the extruded snacks expanded was not found. Practical applications: The physical characteristics of the extruded snacks such as expansion, hardness, and density are important parameters in terms of consumer acceptability of the final product as well as their functional properties. In other words, the appearance and texture are two of the most important attributes that can be seen in snack foods. In particular, the texture can be measured by intrinsic tests: objective (instrumental) and subjective (sensory). That is because the instrumental analysis provides parameters such as firmness, brittleness, consistency, chewiness, among others, when subjected to different stress, strain, and strain rates at the snacks. Similarly, sensory analysis, allows us to see features that include mechanical attributes (concerning the reaction to the applied force), geometric attributes (concerning the shape, size, and orientation of the particles within the food), and attributes related to the perception of moisture or fat content.",
author = "Arturo Rodr{\'i}guez-Vidal and Mart{\'i}nez-Flores, {H{\'e}ctor Eduardo} and {Gonz{\'a}lez Jasso}, Eva and {Vel{\'a}zquez de la Cruz}, Gonzalo and Ram{\'i}rez-Jim{\'e}nez, {Aurea K.} and Eduardo Morales-S{\'a}nchez",
year = "2017",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/jtxs.12234",
language = "American English",
pages = "249--257",
journal = "Journal of Texture Studies",
issn = "0022-4901",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

Extruded snacks from whole wheat supplemented with textured soy flour: Effect on instrumental and sensory textural characteristics. / Rodríguez-Vidal, Arturo; Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo; González Jasso, Eva; Velázquez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Ramírez-Jiménez, Aurea K.; Morales-Sánchez, Eduardo.

In: Journal of Texture Studies, 01.06.2017, p. 249-257.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Extruded snacks from whole wheat supplemented with textured soy flour: Effect on instrumental and sensory textural characteristics

AU - Rodríguez-Vidal, Arturo

AU - Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo

AU - González Jasso, Eva

AU - Velázquez de la Cruz, Gonzalo

AU - Ramírez-Jiménez, Aurea K.

AU - Morales-Sánchez, Eduardo

PY - 2017/6/1

Y1 - 2017/6/1

N2 - © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The quality of extruded snacks can be affected not only by processing conditions, but also by some factors like the concentration and type of ingredients incorporated in their formulation and the working conditions used. Although the process conditions have been established with measurable textural properties, sensory qualities have not been correlated with these responses in expanded extruded snacks made with added functional ingredients. Therefore, in this study the effect of adding textured soy flour (TSF) and whole wheat flour (WWF) to refined wheat flour in the production of extruded snacks and expanded with hot air was evaluated. A response surface design using two levels with five central points was applied to obtain the best combinations of functional ingredients added, holding the parameters of the extrusion process and moisture of treatments. Some texture characteristics and sensory analysis were used as response variables, such as, hardness, fracturability, toughness, crispness, granularity, and chewiness. Likewise, the rate of expansion was evaluated. The results showed that the level of substitution of WWF, especially levels of 15%, had a significant effect on the hardness perceived by the panelist during sensory evaluation. The TSF at concentrations of ≥15%, favored the fracturability and crispness of the samples. It was found that the best expansion index was with the combination of 5% TSF and 15% WWF. Although a correlation between instrumental and sensory tests carried out on the extruded snacks expanded was not found. Practical applications: The physical characteristics of the extruded snacks such as expansion, hardness, and density are important parameters in terms of consumer acceptability of the final product as well as their functional properties. In other words, the appearance and texture are two of the most important attributes that can be seen in snack foods. In particular, the texture can be measured by intrinsic tests: objective (instrumental) and subjective (sensory). That is because the instrumental analysis provides parameters such as firmness, brittleness, consistency, chewiness, among others, when subjected to different stress, strain, and strain rates at the snacks. Similarly, sensory analysis, allows us to see features that include mechanical attributes (concerning the reaction to the applied force), geometric attributes (concerning the shape, size, and orientation of the particles within the food), and attributes related to the perception of moisture or fat content.

AB - © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The quality of extruded snacks can be affected not only by processing conditions, but also by some factors like the concentration and type of ingredients incorporated in their formulation and the working conditions used. Although the process conditions have been established with measurable textural properties, sensory qualities have not been correlated with these responses in expanded extruded snacks made with added functional ingredients. Therefore, in this study the effect of adding textured soy flour (TSF) and whole wheat flour (WWF) to refined wheat flour in the production of extruded snacks and expanded with hot air was evaluated. A response surface design using two levels with five central points was applied to obtain the best combinations of functional ingredients added, holding the parameters of the extrusion process and moisture of treatments. Some texture characteristics and sensory analysis were used as response variables, such as, hardness, fracturability, toughness, crispness, granularity, and chewiness. Likewise, the rate of expansion was evaluated. The results showed that the level of substitution of WWF, especially levels of 15%, had a significant effect on the hardness perceived by the panelist during sensory evaluation. The TSF at concentrations of ≥15%, favored the fracturability and crispness of the samples. It was found that the best expansion index was with the combination of 5% TSF and 15% WWF. Although a correlation between instrumental and sensory tests carried out on the extruded snacks expanded was not found. Practical applications: The physical characteristics of the extruded snacks such as expansion, hardness, and density are important parameters in terms of consumer acceptability of the final product as well as their functional properties. In other words, the appearance and texture are two of the most important attributes that can be seen in snack foods. In particular, the texture can be measured by intrinsic tests: objective (instrumental) and subjective (sensory). That is because the instrumental analysis provides parameters such as firmness, brittleness, consistency, chewiness, among others, when subjected to different stress, strain, and strain rates at the snacks. Similarly, sensory analysis, allows us to see features that include mechanical attributes (concerning the reaction to the applied force), geometric attributes (concerning the shape, size, and orientation of the particles within the food), and attributes related to the perception of moisture or fat content.

U2 - 10.1111/jtxs.12234

DO - 10.1111/jtxs.12234

M3 - Article

C2 - 28573723

SP - 249

EP - 257

JO - Journal of Texture Studies

JF - Journal of Texture Studies

SN - 0022-4901

ER -