Extraction of red pitaya (Stenocereus stellatus) bioactive compounds applying microwave, ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments

María G. Pérez-Loredo, Lourdes Hernández De Jesús, Blanca E. Barragán-Huerta

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Abstract

In recent years, the demand for natural food additives has increased. Although they can be used as a source of betalains and phenolic compounds, there is no information about the extraction of these compounds from red pitayas (Stenocereus stellatus). Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of microwave, ultrasound, and enzymatic pretreatments in the increase of betacyanins (Bc), betaxanthins (Bx), total betalains (TB), total phenolic compounds (TPC), and antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts of S. stellatus fruit pulp (with and without seeds). The experimental design was completely randomized and the results were analyzed using ANOVA and Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The highest concentration of bioactive compounds was obtained using seedless pulp. In this sample, 15 min ultrasound pretreatment increased (p≤0.05) the amount of Bc, Bx, and TB by 13.5, 12.7, and 13.1 %, respectively, in relation to control. The application of 0.5 % pectinase increased (p≤0.05) TPC and AC values by 109.7 %, and 102.6 %, respectively. The ultrasound pretreatment maximized the pigment content (480.3 mg TB 100 g-1 dry pulp) and with 0.5 % pectinase, 2 h, 40 °C, pH 4.0, the TPC content was maximized (804.5 mg equivalents of Gallic acid 100 g-1 dry pulp), as well as the AC (4925.7 mg equivalents of Trolox g-1 dry pulp). According to the PCA, there is a direct relation between the red pitaya S. stellatus TPC and AC content. Therefore, we conclude that the combined use of ultrasound and pectinase treatments maximizes the extraction of bioactive compounds from the pitaya.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)135-151
Number of pages119
JournalAgrociencia
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017

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