Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathotypes are important etiological agents causative of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age in Mexico and in developing countries, where they cause numerous deaths. Both have been associated with delayed growth in children and are the main causative agents of traveler’s diarrhea. The pathogenesis of both bacteria starts by adhering to the intestinal epithelium by means of fimbriae, called colonization factors in human ETEC isolates and aggregative adherence fimbriae in EAEC isolates. Once ETEC adheres to the enterocyte, it produces one or both of its toxins and induces the secretion of chloride and sodium ions and water into the intestinal lumen, producing its characteristic watery diarrhea. EAEC binds to the intestinal epithelium forming a biofilm, induces the production of mucus, releases its toxins and promotes inflammation. EAEC and ETEC infection models with wild-type C57BL/6 and CD40 ligand-deficient mice (with intact microbiota), respectively, revealed that undernutrition and low-zinc diet increases EAEC infection, causing growth retardation, and that ETEC colonizes, persists and induces local and systemic humoral immune response.
|Translated title of the contribution||Enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli: Prevalence, pathogenesis and murine models|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Gaceta Medica de Mexico|
|State||Published - 1 Jul 2019|