Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is an insect with generalist habits that causes serious damage to important agricultural crops, among which is maize (Zea mays). Given the obvious consequences of conventional agriculture and the limitations of organic agriculture, agroecological management strategies such as Push-Pull are increasingly considered since, in addition to production purposes, these systems channel economic, ecological, and social viability of that production. The successful introduction of these systems, still little implemented outside Africa, necessarily requires field effectiveness studies of laboratory and/or greenhouse proposals. Therefore, this study evaluated the field effectiveness of Push-Pull strategies designed for the management of S. frugiperda in maize crops in Morelos, Mexico. Most of the evaluated systems presented lower levels of fall armyworm infestations than those of the maize monoculture. Mombasa-D. ambrosioides, Mulato II-T. erecta, Mulato II-C. juncea, Tanzania-T. erecta and Tanzania-D. ambrosioides systems presented higher yields and profits than those observed in monocultures. Chemical control is the main method used to combat fall armyworm in maize crops. However, its indiscriminate use usually leads to a more complex scenario characterized by loss of its effectiveness due to the development of resistance of the insect pest, emergence of secondary pests, and reduction of the populations of natural enemies. For this reason, efforts to develop strategies for agroecological pest management such as Push-Pull are increasingly growing. In this context, the present study was carried out to evaluate field effectiveness of Push-Pull systems for S. frugiperda management in maize crops in Morelos, Mexico. In a randomized block experiment, the incidence and severity of S. frugiperda, the development and yield of maize were evaluated in nine Push-Pull systems and a maize monoculture. The Push-Pull systems presented incidence/severity values lower than those of the monoculture. Morphological development and maize yield in the latter were lower than those of most Push-Pull systems. Mombasa-D. ambrosioides, Mulato II-T. erecta, Mulato II-C. juncea, Tanzania-T. erecta and Tanzania-D. ambrosioides systems presented higher yields than those of monocultures.
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- Repellent plants