Campylobacter jejuni is a pathogen bacterium that causes foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. However, phenolic compounds extracted from natural sources such as capsicum pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare) could inhibit the growth of C. jejuni. Therefore, different extracts were prepared using ultrasonic extraction (USE), conventional extraction (CE) and thermosonic extraction (TSE). C. jejuni was then exposed to chili extracts to examine the antimicrobial effect and their growth/death bacterial kinetics were studied using different mathematical models. Atomic force microscopy was applied to investigate the microstructural and nanomechanical changes in the bacteria. Extracts obtained by TSE had the highest phenolic content (4.59 ± 0.03 mg/g of chili fresh weight [FW]) in comparison to USE (4.12 ± 0.05 mg/g of chili FW) and CE (4.28 ± 0.07 mg/g of chili FW). The inactivation of C. jejuni was more efficient when thermosonic extract was used. The Gompertz model was the most suitable mathematical model to describe the inactivation kinetics of C. jejuni. Roughness and nanomechanical analysis performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) provided evidence that the chili extracts had significant effects on morphology, surface, and the reduced Young's modulus of C. jejuni. The novelty of this work was integrating growth/death bacterial kinetics of C. jejuni using different mathematical models and chili extracts, and its relationship with the morphological, topographic and nanomechanical changes estimated by AFM.
- Antimicrobial effect
- Mathematical modeling
- Peak Force Quantitative NanoMechanics
- Phenolic compounds
- Ultrasonic extraction