© 2018, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Plant herbicides inhibit specific enzymes of biosynthetic metabolism, such as acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS). Herbicide resistance can be caused by point mutations at the binding domains, catalytic sites and other regions within multimeric enzymes. Direct-injection electrospray mass spectrometry was used for high-throughput metabolic fingerprinting for finding significant differences among biotypes in response to herbicide application. A Mexican biotype of wild oat (Avena fatua) that displays multiple resistances to ACCase- and ALS-inhibiting herbicides was characterized. The dose–response test showed that the double-resistant biotype had a resistance index of 3.58 for pinoxaden and 3.53 for mesosulfuron-methyl. Resistance was accompanied by characteristic mutations at the site of action: an I-1781-L substitution occurred in the ACCase enzyme and an S-653-N mutation was identified within the ALS enzyme. Other mutations were also detected in the genes of the Mexican biotypes. The ionomic fingerprint showed that the multiple-resistant biotype had a markedly different metabolic pattern under control conditions and that this difference was accentuated after herbicide treatment. This demonstrates that single changes of amino acid sequences can produce several holistic modifications in the metabolism of resistant plants compared to susceptible plants. We conclude that in addition to genetic resistance, additional mechanisms of metabolic adaptation and detoxification can occur in multiple-resistant weed plants.
Torres-García, J. R., Tafoya-Razo, J. A., Velázquez-Márquez, S., & Tiessen, A. (2018). Double herbicide-resistant biotypes of wild oat (Avena fatua) display characteristic metabolic fingerprints before and after applying ACCase- and ALS-inhibitors. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-018-2691-y