Disruption of Neurotransmission, Membrane Potential, and Mitochondrial Calcium in the Brain and Spinal Cord of Nile Tilapia Elicited by Microcystis aeruginosa Extract: an Uncommon Consequence of the Eutrophication Process

Minerva Nájera-Martínez, Goretti Guadalupe Landon-Hernández, José Pablo Romero-López, María Lilia Domínguez-López, Armando Vega-López

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Microcystins (MCs) are produced during the growth and proliferation of some species of cyanobacteria, mainly Microcystis aeruginosa, which has massive growth in eutrophic water bodies. Microcystins are highly toxic metabolites derived from some cyanobacteria species that exert its main effect in the liver through the inhibition of protein phosphatase (PP1 and PP2A). However, other damages in fish species are less documented and could be unexpected. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of Microcystis aeruginosa extract (MaE) into the central nervous system (CNS) of the Nile tilapia. The MaE was normalized by MCs content (MC-LR). We include a positive control for protein phosphatase inhibition, norcantharidin intraperitoneally dosed at sublethal levels. On the eighth day, measurement of neurotransmission biomarkers (AChE, BChE, CbE, and GABA) were measured, as well as levels of mitochondrial calcium and the mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry in the brain and spinal cord were assessed, in addition to the PP1/PP2A activity in the liver. The MCs elicited mortality at 5 µg/L. The positive control and MCs at sublethal levels inhibited the PP1/PP2A activity in the liver and induced alterations in the neurotoxicity biomarkers evaluated in the CNS. This response is probably due to the disruption of transport ions, dependent and independent of ATP because of alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial calcium. The findings of this study suggest that pollutants capable of inducing cyanobacterial blooms are able, in an indirect way, to exert neurotoxic effects in fish species through MC levels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
JournalWater, Air, and Soil Pollution
Volume233
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Norcantharidin
  • Pollutants

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