© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Bahía Magdalena-Almejas (BMA) is one of the most important fishery zones in North-western Mexico that produces between 55 and 60% of the total annual catch of the State of Baja California Sur (BCS) Mexico, mainly from the catches by industrial fisheries of sardines and tuna. However, as many places in the world, this region is experimenting symptoms of resources overexploitation of due to the absence of a long-term vision of sustainability, a multi-fishery management strategy, and a lack of planning and regulation strategies for local fisheries. This paper documented the evolution of fishing activity using different governmental databases, interviews with fishers, and academic publications to identify short and medium term challenges, and to suggest management approaches that will contribute in the adaptation of strategies to promote the sustainable use of fishing resources and economic alternatives for fishermen's income diversification. The findings of this study confirm that Small Scale Fisheries (SSF) have played a major role in the economic development of BMA in recent years, conflicts between industrial and SSF fleets are arising as a result of overlapping working areas inside the bay, and changes in the relative importance of SSF. Although the majority of the population in the region depends almost completely on activities related to SSF, the economic and social aspects of these activities have been poorly documented; studies on this field became even more necessary. Based on the current scenario, it is urgent that fishing policies be adapted to new challenges such as efficient multi-active spatial management, a multi-fishery management scheme. Besides, intra-sectorial strategies and social development programs should be improved.