Cutaneous Dengue Virus Inoculation Triggers Strong B Cell Reactions but Contrastingly Poor T Cell Responses

Edith Marcial-Juárez, Julio García-Cordero, Raúl Antonio Maqueda-Alfaro, Rafael Eduardo Saucedo-López, Luvia Enid Sánchez-Torres, Leticia Cedillo-Barrón, Leopoldo Flores-Romo

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Abstract

© 2020, Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS. Dengue is a global health problem without current specific treatment nor safe vaccines available. While severe dengue is related to pre-existing non-neutralizing dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, the role of T cells in protection or pathology is unclear. Using cutaneous DENV infection in immunocompetent mice we previously showed the generation of PNA+ germinal centers (GCs), now we assessed the activation and proliferation of B and T cells in draining lymph nodes (DLNs). We found a drastic remodelling of DLN compartments from 7 to 14 days post-infection (dpi) with greatly enlarged B cell follicles, occupying almost half of the DLN area compared to ~24% in naïve conditions. Enormous clusters of proliferating (Ki-67+) cells inside B follicles were found 14 dpi, representing ~33% of B cells in DLNs but only ~2% in non-infected mice. Inside GCs, we noticed an important recruitment of tingle body macrophages removing apoptotic cells. In contrast, the percentage of paracortex area and total T cells decreased by 14–16 dpi, compared to controls. Scattered randomly distributed Ki-67+ T cells were found, similar to non-infected mice. CD69 expression by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was minor, while it was remarkable in B cells, representing 1764.7% of change from basal levels 3 dpi. The apparent lack of T cell responses cannot be attributed to apoptosis since no significant differences were observed compared to non-infected mice. This study shows massive B cell activation and proliferation in DLNs upon DENV infection. In contrast, we found very poor, almost absent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses.
Original languageAmerican English
JournalVirologica Sinica
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020

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