OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from APOA5, APOC3, CETP, ATP binding cassette transporter A1 and SIK3 genes in the development of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV patients under antiretroviral therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study was developed. Leukocytic genomic DNA was extracted and genotyping for SNPs rs662799, rs964184, rs5128, rs2854116, rs2854117, rs3764261, rs4149310, rs4149267 and rs139961185 was performed by real time-PCR using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays, in Mexican mestizo patients with HIV infection, with hypertriglyceridemia (>1.7 mmol/L) under antiretroviral therapy. Genetic variants were also investigated in a control group of normolipidemic HIV patients (≤ 1.7 mmol/L). Haplotypes and gene interactions were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 602 HIV patients were genotyped (316 cases and 286 controls). Age and antiretroviral regimen based on protease inhibitors were associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0002. respectively). SNP rs964184 GG genotype in APOA5 gene exhibited the highest association with hypertriglyceridemia risk (OR, 3.2, 95% CI, 1.7-5.8, P = 0.0001); followed by SNP rs139961185 in SIK3 gene (OR = 2.3; (95% CI, 1.1-4.8; P = 0.03 for AA vs. AG genotype; and APOC3 rs5128 GG genotype, (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9; P = 0.04) under codominant models. These associations were maintained in the adjusted analysis by age and protease inhibitors based antiretroviral regimens. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals an association between rs964184 in APOA5; rs5128 in APOC3 and rs139961185 in SIK3 and high triglyceride concentrations in Mexican HIV-patients receiving protease inhibitors. These genetic factors may influence the adverse effects related to antiretroviral therapy.