Calculation of Effective Thermal Conductivity for Human Skin Using the Fractal Monte Carlo Method

Guillermo Rojas-Altamirano, René O. Vargas, Juan P. Escandón, Rubén Mil-Martínez, Alan Rojas-Montero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In this work, an effective thermal conductivity (ETC) for living tissues, which directly affects the energy transport process, is determined. The fractal scaling and Monte Carlo methods are used to describe the tissue as a porous medium, and blood is considered a Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid for comparative and analytical purposes. The effect of the principal variables—such as fractal dimensions DT and Df, porosity, and the power-law index, n—on the temperature profiles as a function of time and tissue depth, for one-and three-layer tissues, besides temperature distribution, are presented. ETC was improved by considering high tissue porosity, low tortuosity, and shear-thinning fluids. In three-layer tissues with different porosities, perfusion with a non-Newtonian fluid contributes to the understanding of the heat transfer process in some parts of the human body.

Original languageEnglish
Article number424
Issue number3
StatePublished - 10 Mar 2022


  • Bioheat equation
  • Effective thermal conductivity
  • Fractal scaling
  • Human body
  • Monte Carlo
  • Non-Newtonian fluid
  • Porous media
  • Power-law model


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