Biological activity of esters of quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide against E. histolytica and their analysis as potential thioredoxin reductase inhibitors

Jacqueline Soto-Sánchez, Luis A. Caro-Gómez, Alma D. Paz-González, Laurence A. Marchat, Gildardo Rivera, Rosa Moo-Puc, Diego G. Arias, Esther Ramírez-Moreno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

© 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Amoebiasis is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica that affects millions of people throughout the world. The standard treatment is metronidazole, however, this drug causes several side effects, and is also mutagenic and carcinogenic. Therefore, the search for therapeutic alternatives is necessary. Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) derivatives have been shown to exhibit activity against different protozoan. In the present study, the effects of esters of quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide (7-carboxylate QdNOs) derivatives on E. histolytica proliferation, morphology, ultrastructure, and oxidative stress were evaluated, also their potential as E. histolytica thioredoxin reductase (EhTrxR) inhibitors was analyzed. In vitro tests showed that 12 compounds from n-propyl and isopropyl series, were more active (IC50 = 0.331 to 3.56 μM) than metronidazole (IC50 = 4.5 μM). The compounds with better biological activity have a bulky, trifluoromethyl and isopropyl group at R1-, R2-, and R3-position, respectively. The main alterations found in trophozoites treated with some of these compounds included changes in chromatin, cell granularity, redistribution of vacuoles with cellular debris, and an increase in reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, docking studies suggested that 7-carboxylate QdNOs derivatives could interact with amino acid residues of the NADPH-binding domain and/or the redox-active site of EhTrxR. Enzymatic assays demonstrated that selected 7-carboxylate QdNOs inhibits EhTrxR disulfide reductase activity, and diaphorase activity shows that these compounds could act as electron acceptor substrates for the enzyme. Taken together, these data indicate that among the mechanisms involved in the antiamoebic effect of the 7-carboxylate QdNOs derivatives studied, is the induction of oxidative stress and the inhibition of EhTrxR activity.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)695-711
Number of pages17
JournalParasitology Research
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020

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