Immunoprophylactic alternatives are needed to fight against acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). This study addressed the effects of different routes of Bacillus administration (via diet or culture water) on growth performance, survival, and immune parameters of Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus-AHPND. Bacillus mixture and Bacillus licheniformis BCR 4-3 were added to feed (1 × 106 CFU g−1) or rearing water (1 × 106, 2 × 106, 3 × 106 CFU L−1). Animals were challenged with a determined median lethal V. parahaemolyticus concentration. Survival, growth performance, and immune response were determined. The results showed that B. licheniformis BCR 4-3 (3 × 106 CFU L−1) administration via culture water significantly (P < 0.05) increased survival (53.4%) in shrimp challenged with V. parahaemolyticus; growth performance was also significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to the control group. Moreover, the relative expression of innate immune-related genes, such as lysozyme, penaeidin4, crustin, and superoxide dismutase, significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated in shrimp fed B. licheniformis BCR4-3 compared with the control group. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic B. licheniformis BCR4-3 in feed and culture water increased resistance in L. vannamei against V. parahaemolyticus-AHPND and was found associated with an upregulation of key antimicrobial innate immune-related genes.
- Antimicrobial peptides
- Immune response