Shrimp culture has long been done in Asia and America to provide high quality food to people. Modern aquaculture uses advanced techniques to increase shrimp production but it also has enhanced the occurrence of infectious diseases. Disease is the main pitfall for the development and sustainability of shrimp aquaculture worldwide. In the last decade several methods and strategies have been developed and evaluated under experimental conditions in order to curb the negative impact of viral infections. Among these, RNA interference is the most recent tool against viral diseases in shrimp and it is deemed as a promising biotechnology to boost shrimp production. This paper gives a broad overview of the RNAi methods used to fight viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture compared to the antiviral effect of methods previously evaluated against viruses. It also gives examples of the use of RNAi to learn more on mechanisms of the shrimp defense response. The application of RNAi to fight or treat viral infections in shrimp aquaculture has yet to come and it depends on the efficacy of RNAi against several viral diseases, evaluation of environment and food safety and the development of cheap, massive delivery methods of RNAi molecules to shrimp farming facilities. © 2011 Escobedo-Bonilla CM.