We propose a finite-time thermodynamics model for an Otto thermal cycle. Our model considers global losses in a simplified way lumped into a friction-like term, and takes into account the departure from an endoreversible regime through a parameter (R) arising from the Clausius inequality. Our numerical results suggest that the cycle's power output and efficiency are very sensitive to that parameter. We find that R is the ratio of the constant-volume heat capacities of the reactants and products in the combustion reaction occurring inside the working fluid. Our results have implications in the search for new fuels for internal combustion engines.
Angulo-Brown, F., Rocha-Martínez, J. A., & Navarrete-González, T. D. (1996). A non-endoreversible Otto cycle model: Improving power output and efficiency. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 80-83. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/29/1/014